American System

Plan of Henry Clay and the National Republicans to encourage economic expansion through tariffs, a new national bank, and federally funded internal improvements.

Alien Act

Act passed in 1798 that authorized the president to expel foreigners from the United States without due process of law.

Common Sense

Widely read pamphlet written by Thomas Paine and published in January 1776, which rejected monarchy and called for independence.

Excise taxes

Indirect taxes levied on items produced in the United States. The tax on whiskey proposed by Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton provoked the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.


The British policy of forcibly drafting British subjects employed on American vessels to serve in the British Navy. It sometimes resulted in the impressment of American seamen and was a cause of war between the United States and Britain in 1812.

Implied powers

The concept that the government possessed the authority to make any laws "necessary and proper" for exercising the powers specifically granted to it by the Constitution.

Jays Treaty

Unpopular treaty negotiated with the British in 1795 which failed to resolve controversial issues such as impressment and neutral rights, but did provide for English evacuation of western forts on U.S. soil.

Monroe Doctrine

U.S. foreign policy statement issued in 1823 which stated the Americas were no longer open to European colonization, that the Western and Eastern Hemispheres were distinct political spheres, and that the United States would not meddle in European affairs

Non-Importation Act

Congressional measure passed in 1806 that banned the purchase of goods from England which could be made in the United States or purchased elsewhere.


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