usa.gif (1030 bytes)   Glossary of Key Terms:    usa.gif (1030 bytes)


Alexander Hamilton- He was the Secretary of the Treasury, who believed manufacturing was essential to the growth of our nation.

The Louisiana Purchase- Jefferson sent ministers to France with instructions to offer up to $10 million for both New Orleans and the strip of land extending from there to Florida. Napoleon's ministers, offered to sell not only New Orleans, but also the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million. This doubled the size of the U.S., removed foreign presence, and guaranteed the extension of the western frontier to lands beyond the Mississippi.

Thomas Jefferson- The third president of the U.S., who believed in an agrarian society, laissez-faire capitalism and a strict interpretation of Constitution. One of his greatest achievements was the Louisiana Purchase.

right of deposit- It was granted in the Pinkney Treaty(1794), which allowed Americans farmers tax-free use of New Orleans. It was revoked by Spanish officials which led to Jefferson's Purchase of the Louisiana Purchase.

constitutional
- A term used to describe whether an act or piece of legislature pertains to the Constitution. This issue was brought up with the Louisiana Purchase as to whether Thomas Jefferson had the right to purchase foreign land.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark-
They were Jefferson's personal secretary and a young army officer who explored the Far Northwest. They made contracts with the Native Americans, opened up the fur trade, and brought back scientific information about the area. They established American presence in the region and demonstrated an overland route to the Pacific.

Zebulan Pike
- A lieutenant who explored the sources of the Mississippi as far as Leech Lake in Minnesota. Then he followed the trek into the southern Rocky Mountains.

Sacajawea
- A Shoshoni woman who assisted Lewis and Clark.

Cherokees
- A tribe that set up their own council, the Cherokee nation Council. They assimilated to white culture. But, Andrew Jackson's Indian Policy caused them to lose their land in Worcester v. Georgia. They were then forced to move to the "Indian Territory", by the "Trail of Tears."

Andrew Jackson-
A Tennessee military commander who had a strong dislike for Indians who later became
president. He led the defeat of the Creeks in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and was the creator of the Indian Removal Act to send the Cherokees to the "Indian Territory" by the Trail of Tears"

Trail of Tears-
The final up rooting of the Cherokee Nation from their lands. It was a trail from Georgia to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma where more than 4,000 died on the tragic trek.

Creeks-
A tribe who used armed resistance against our military, which started the Creek War. The most radical groups was the Red Sticks, who led frontier raids. These efforts to save their land were crushed at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, when Andrew Jackson defeated them and seized two thirds of Creek domain.

Financial Panic of 1819
- The first panic of our new nation that ended the Era o f Good Feelings. It was caused by the Second Bank of the U.S. because it tightened the money supply. There was widespread speculation of western lands and inflation was very high.

Adams-Onis Treaty(1819)-
A treaty with Spain that defined our southern border and we also acquired Florida.

inflation
- It is a condition where money in circulation is greater than the products being sold. This condition can be seen as a major cause of the financial panics throughout history.

Erie Canal
- A 363 mile canal that connected New York City to the Great Lakes. It carried goods and people at low costs. It was very important because it linked western farms to eastern urban areas.

Lancaster Turnpike-
One of the first roads that connected Philadelphia with the rich farmlands around Lancaster. It stimulated the construction of the privately built toll booths.

The Clermont
- A steamboat developed by Robert Fulton, that made a successful voyage up the Hudson River.

Robert Fulton
- The inventor of the Clermont, one of the first working steam ships.

The Lowell System
- Textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, that recruited young farm women and housed them in dormitories. It was considered the "Manchester of America," and was imitated widely.

Eli Whitney
- One of the most famous American inventors who created the cotton gin in 1793. He also devised a system for making riffles out of interchangeable parts. This became the basis for mass production methods in the new northern factories.


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