The newly independent America of the early 1790's through the mid 1820's was faced with many foreign policy problems.
Analyze some of the economic and political issues that influenced this foreign policy.

Document A
     ...He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds....Here individuals of all races are melted into a new race of man, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. Americans are the western pilgrims.

Letters From an American Farmer
by J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur
(from "Letter III," 1782)



Document B
          ...No alliances however strict between the parts can be an adequate substitute. They must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptations which all alliances in all times have experienced....and... just and amicable feelings towards all...So lokewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils....that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character....

Washington's Farewell Address, 1796

Document C
     The worst consequence, perhaps, of the independence and growing commerce of America is the seduction of our seamen. We hear continually of clamors in that country on the score of its sailors being {im}pressed at sea by our frigates....If those who by birth, and by residence and employment, prior to 1793, were confessedly British, ought still to be regarded as His Majesty's subjects, a very considerable part of the navigators [sailors] of American ships are such at this moment; thought, unfortunatly, they are not easily distinguished from genuine American seamen....

A Briton (James Stephen) Recommends Firmness

Document D
     ...I would not be willing to involve the country in war, in defense of the extensive and circutous carrying trade...I should be for holding fast the claim to the circuitous carrying trade, and would be willing to operate on our enemies by adopting countervailing strictive systems....for what is an inheritance right, for what I deem the legitimate, or necessary carrying trade, the liberty of carrying our productions to foreign markets, and with the return cargo, in which agriculture is particularly interested, I would fight in defense of.

John C, Calhoun Insists on Free Trade

Document E

     But, Mr. Chairman, let us review this [embargo] law and its effects. In a commercial point of view, it has annihilated our trade. In an agricultural point of view, it has paralyzed industry....It remains then to consider its effects as a peace measure...that if the friends of the embargo had rightly calculated its effects--if it had brought the belligerence of Europe to a sense of justice and respect for our rights...it would have been infinitely wise and desirable....But, sir, the experience of near four months has not produced that effect...if such should be the result, then will the embargo, of all measures, be the most acceptable to Britain. By occluding [closing] our ports, you give to her ships the exclusive use of the ocean; and you give to her despairing West India planter the monopoly of sugar and rum and coffee to the European world....

A Federalist (Philip Barton Key) Attacks the Embargo


Document F

     The Senate today approved an agreement with Britain setting limits on naval forces on the Great Lakes. The accord...was worked out between Charles Bagot of Britain and Richard Rush, acting secretary of state. Each nation is to have no more than one single-gun ship of 100 tons on each lake, and has agreed not to build other warships to be placed in these waters...

"Naval treaty limits British, U.S. unites"
April 10, 1817


Document G

     Mexico's new revolutionary government...was granted formal recognition today. This initiative is the latest American effort to aid the rebellions of the Latin American colonies against Spain....Monroe extended diplomatic recognition to Gran Colombia...Argentina, Chile and Peru. The recognition by the United States is the first accorded to any of these revolutionary governments by a major power. However, Washington promises no financial or military assistance to the new countries....

"U.S. recognizing Latin American states"
December 12,1822


Document H

     ...We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the government who have declared their independence and maintained it...we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them...other...than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States...

The Monroe Doctrine, 1823



Document I

     ...We have seen, I think, the cause of distresses of the country. We have seen that an exclusive dependence upon the foreign market must lead to still severer distress to impoverishment, to ruin. We must, then, change somewhat our course. We must give a new direction to some portion of our industry. We must speedily adopt a genuine American policy....Let us counteract the policy of foreigners and withdraw the support which we now give to their industry and stimulate that of our own country....

Henry Clay: The Protective Tariff
March 31,1824



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