QUESTION

           Identify the factors that led to westward migration after 1820. How did the rising importance of the West influence the social, economic and political trends of the rest of the country in the antebellum period?

 

DOCUMENT A

Source:   Ward, Geoffrey C., The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project.

 

DOCUMENT B

Source:   Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project.

 

DOCUMENT C

Source:  Peters, Arthur King. Seven Trails West.New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.

 

DOCUMENT D

           There is no country holding forth such great inducements to emigrants as California. It’s natural advantages are of the most important character—a most salubrious climate, a perpetual spring, as it were, without the sultriness of summer or the chilling winds of winter—a soil unsurpassed for richness and productiveness, some of the principal articles of agriculture growing in a wild, uncultivated state and in excessive abundance—immense herds of wild cattle, whose hides, tallow, meat &c., would be most profitable articles of traffic—the wealth of the woodland and rare water privileges—a prize for industry and enterprise—the gold, silver and precious gems that the earth is holding in its flinty bosom, and which, in some cases, nature has so exposed as to render them available without the cost of labor and expense.

Source:  The Saint Louis Weekly Reveille (March 9, 1846). 

 

DOCUMENT E

          There should be assigned to each tribe, for a permanent home, a country adapted to agriculture, of limited extent and well-defined boundaries; within which all, with occasional exceptions, should be compelled to constantly remain…In the meantime, the government should cause them to be supplied with stock, agriculture implements, and useful material for clothing, encourage and assist them in the erection of comfortable dwellings, and secure to them the means and facilities of education, intellectual, moral and religious.

Source:  Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1850.

 

DOCUMENT F

 “Come on then, Gentlemen of the Slave States, since there is no escaping your challenge, I accept it in behalf of the cause of freedom. We will engage in competition for the virgin soil of Kansas, and God give victory to the side which is stronger in number as it is in right.”

                                    Senator William A. Seward of New York                                   

                                                            In response:

            “We are playing for a mighty stake. The game must be played boldly…If we win, we can carry slavery to the Pacific Ocean.”

                                    Senator David Atchison of Missouri

Source:  Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project. 

 

DOCUMENT G

          The Popular Idea is rapidly maturing that Mormonism…should be put down and utterly extirpated. I believe that we can supercede the Negro-mania with the almost universal excitement of an Anti-Mormon Crusade. Should you…seize this question with a strong, fearless and resolute hand, the Country I am sure will rally to you with an earnest enthusiasm and the pipings of Abolitionism will hardly be heard amidst the thunders of the storm we shall rise.

Source:  John Tyler, advising President Buchanan on how to deal with the Kansas Crisis, early 1860s.

 

DOCUMENT H

 

DOCUMENT I

          America is destined for better deeds. It is our unparalleled glory that we have no reminisces of battlefields, but in defense of humanity, of the oppressed of all nations, of the rights of conscience, the rights of personal enfranchisement…The expansive future is our arena, and for our history…We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can. We point to the everlasting truth on the first page of our national declaration, and we proclaim and we proclaim to the millions of other lands, that “the gates of hell”—the powers of aristocracy and monarchy—“shall not prevail against it”…Yes we are the nation of progress, of individual freedom, of universal enfranchisement…freedom of conscience, freedom of person, freedom of trade…This is our highest destiny, and in nature’s eternal, inevitable decree of cause and effect we must accomplish it…our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity…

Source:  John L. O’Sullivan on Manifest Destiny, 1839.

 

DOCUMENT J

            Sir, we ask the neutrality of this Government on this question of slavery…and I would never invade one single right of the South. So far from it al I, that I stand ready, at all times and upon all occasions…to sustain the institutions of the South as they exist, with our money and with our blood, when that day comes, as many—many southern men—fear it may come. When that day comes, sir, the North stands with them. We go for very compromise of the constitution. We ask that this Government protect the integrity of free territory against the aggressions of slavery—against it’s wrongful usurpations…This fundamental law, which prohibits slavery in California, will be in force; this fundamental law which prohibits slavery in New Mexico, will be in force. Shall the South invade it? Shall the South make this Government an instrument for the violation of its neutrality, and for the establishment of slavery in these territories, in defiance of the law?…There is no question of abolition here, sir. It is a question whether the South shall be permitted…to wrest this territory to the accomplishment of its own sectional schemes and purposes…I stand for the integrity of the territory. It shall remain free, so far as my voice and vote can aid in the preservation of its free character.

Source:  David Wilmot Argues For a Free California, 1847.  The Congressional Globe, 29th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C.:Blair & Ives 1847. 352-354. 

 

DOCUMENT K

           To remove a hostile neighbor in itself; to prevent it becoming a neighbor both hostile and dangerous in European hand; to enable us to command the Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico;…to develop for the benefit of ourselves and the world to the ample resources of Mexico; to redeem the Mexican people from anarchy, tyranny, debasement; to redeem security, civilization, improvement; to keep Cuba from the hands of our cunning…rivals, the British, to open Mexico, as an extensive market to our manufacturers…to prevent the monarchy from gaining an additional ground on American continent, North or South, and thus facilitate its entire removal.

Source:  John L. O’Sullivan, Philadelphia Public Ledger, January 25, 1848.


 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR DOCUMENTS USED

Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project, 1996.

Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project, 1996.

Peters, Arthur King. Seven Trails West.  New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.

Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project, 1996.

Gretz, Katherine R. Retrieving the American Past: 1810-1860. Pearson Custom Publishing:  2002, pp. 88-89. 

Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project, 1996. 

Peters, Arthur King. Seven Trails West.  New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. 

(Author not given) Railroad Growth, 1840’s-1860’s. N.d. 2/9/2002- Graph <http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/martin_awl/medialib/download/MARTFIG125.gif>

 O’Sullivan, John L.. Manifest Destiny.  1839. 2/9/2002. < http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/osulliva.htm>

 Wilmot, David. David Wilmot Argues for Free California. 1847. 2/9/2002 <http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter12/12.1.wilmot.html>

 Editor: Philadelphia Public Ledger. “History 1301 Texas A&M University- Hunter, Lesile Gene:  Manifest Destiny, 1840s.” January 25,1848. 2/9/2002 <Http://www.tamuk.edu/webuser/history/ManifestDestiny.html>

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR WORKS REFERENCED

American Heritage. The American Heritage Book of the Presidents and Famous Americans: Volumes 2 and 4: New York: Dell Publishing,1967. 

Gretz, Katherine R.. Retrieving the American Past.  1810-1860. Pearson Custom Publishing: 2002,      pp. 88-89. 

Heffner, Richard D. A Documented History of the United States: New York: New American: Library, 1999.

Newman, John J. John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination: New York: AMSCO School Publications, Inc., 1998

Peters, Arthur King. Seven Trails West.  New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.

Ward, Geoffrey C.. The West: An Illustrated History: New York: The West Book Project, 1996.

Internet Sources:
 O’Sullivan, John L.. Manifest Destiny. 1839.
2/9/2002. <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/osulliva.htm>

 Wilmot, David. David Wilmot Argues for Free California. 1847. 2/9/2002 <http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter12/12.1.wilmot.html>

 Editor: New York Sun. “History 1301 Texas A&M University- Hunter, Lesile Gene: Manifest Destiny, 1840s”. October 22,1847. 2/9/2002.  <Http://www.tamuk.edu/webuser/history/ManifestDestiny.html>

 Editor: Philadelphia Public Ledger. “History 1301 Texas A&M University- Hunter, Lesile Gene: Manifest Destiny, 1840s.” January 25,1848. 2/9/2002.  <Http://www.tamuk.edu/webuser/history/ManifestDestiny.html>

( Author not Given).To The West: N.d. 2/9/2002 <http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/query/r?ammem/amss:@field(DOCID+@lit(as203680))>

 (Author not given) Railroad Growth, 1840’s-1860’s. N.d. 2/9/2002- Graph  <http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/martin_awl/medialib/download/MARTFIG125.gif>

DBQ Question created by:

Leticia John
Abigail McCue
Maria Regina H. S.
Hartsdale, NY
2002