bullet "Africa: The Passing of the Golden Ages" by John Henrik Clarke
bullet "Africa, to 1500" - Frank E. Smitha
bullet African History Links by Region
bullet African History Timeline
bullet African Kings List
bullet African Trade (BBC)
bullet African Voices:  Africa's History
bullet Ancient African Empires
bullet Ancient Africa Timeline - with links
bullet Ancient Era of the African Continent
bullet "Building Bridges to Afrocentrism" - Ann Macy Roth
bullet "Diffusion and other Problems in the History of African States" - an essay by Professor James Giblin, Department of History, The University of Iowa
bullet Exploring Africa
bullet History of the Continent of Africa, 400-1650 C.E.
bullet Islam in Africa - timeline
bullet Jewish Roots in Africa" - essay by George E. Lichtblau
bullet Major African Civilizations 1000 B.C.E.- c.600 C.E. [The Axial Age]
bullet Major African Civilizations c.400-1650 C.E. [Post-Classical]
bullet MAP-->"Africa, c.1000-1500"
bullet MAP-->"Africa, 1500-1800"
bullet Sub-Saharan African Art - Michael C. Carlos Museum
bullet "Trade and PoliticalSystems in Africa" - lecture (Wallace Mills - St. Mary's University, Canada)
bullet The Travels of Ibn Battuta - A Virtual Tour with the 14th Century Traveler

World Atlas of Archaeology- Africa

bullet Africa:  The Cradle of Civilization
bullet Archaic Art of Northern Africa- Saharan Rock Art
bullet Archaic Southern Africa- Rock Art
bullet Australopithecus (
bullet "Discoveries Breathe New Life into Human Origins Debate" -
bullet Dr. Donald C. Johanson
bullet Fossil Hominids:  The Evidence for Human Evolution
bullet "Genetic Study Roots Humans in Africa"  - by BBC News Online science editor Dr David Whitehouse (12-6-00)
bullet Hadar
bullet Human Origins and Evolution in Africa
bullet Human Evolution (
bullet "In Search of Human Origins" - National Geographic
bullet The Human Origins Program: "In Search of What Makes Us Human" - Smithsonian Institute
bullet The Leakey Foundation
bullet PPT - Ms. Rath - "Human Origins in Africa" [BB09]
bullet Prehistoric Puzzles - Africa
bullet The Pre-History of Africa
bullet Rock Art Archives
bullet Saharan Rock Art (1)
bullet Saharan Rock Art (2)
bullet Spread of Agricultural Villages - animation
bullet Spread of Homo Erectus - animation
bullet Spread of Homo Sapiens - animation

    North African Kingdoms/States:
bullet The Berbers
bullet Faras: Cathedral in the Desert - Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria)
bullet The Medina of Marrakesh
bullet North Africa & Ethiopia
bullet Trans-Saharan Trade


    East African Kingdoms/Sudanic States:
bullet Ancient Africa's Black Kingdoms:  The Kingdoms of Kush and Ancient Nubia
bullet Ancient Nubia:  Egypt's Rival in Africa
bullet The Ancient Nubian City of Kerma, 2500-1500 BCE - Smithsonian National Gallery of African Art
bullet Ancient Sudan- Kingdom of Mero (4th c. BCE to 325 CE)
bullet Aksum:  An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity by Stuart Munro-Hay  I    II    III    IV
bullet Black Kingdoms of the Nile (PBS series on Africa) - Nubia: Struggling to Protect a Past Glory
bullet Christians in Ethiopia
bullet "Comparing the religions of Mero and Ancient Egypt" - Adam Ashcroft
bullet Images from World History- Ancient Horn of Africa - Axum (Aksum)
bullet Images from World History- Ancient Sudan - Kingdom of Mero
bullet Islam in the Medieval Sudan
bullet "Keepers of the Faith: The Living Legacy of Axsum" - National Geographic
bullet Kilwa Kisiwani, the Oldest City in East African History
bullet "The Kingdom of Aksum" - essay
bullet The Kingdom of Kush
bullet Kingdoms of the Medieval Sudan
bullet Mero and Hellenism
bullet The Meroitic Alphabet
bullet Meroitic Period (ca. 295 BCE - 320 CE)
bullet "Neither Goddesses Nor Doormats: The Role of Women in Nubia" - essay by Tara Kneller
bullet Nubia (1)
bullet Nubia (2)
bullet The
bullet Portuguese Intervention In East Africa (BBC)
bullet The Pyramids of Mero
bullet Royal Cemetery of Kush
bullet "The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa" by Mikey Brass
bullet The Sun Temple, Mero
bullet The Swahili (BBC)
bullet The Swahili Coast (PBS series on Africa)
bullet Swahili Culture
bullet Trade And Immigration To The East Coast Of Africa
bullet A Visit to Axsum: A Tour of the Ethiopian Iron Age site by Archaeologist Stuart Munro-Hay
bullet Why trade? - the Sudanic states

    Early Central Africa/Sahel:
bullet About Timbuktu, Mali - The History Channel
bullet Dogon
bullet "The Islamic Legacy of Timbuktu" by Tahir Shah
bullet Kongo (BBC)
bullet The Libraries of Timbuktu
bullet Timbuktu, the El Dorado of Africa
bullet "Trans-Saharan Trade and the West African Discovery of the Mediterranean World" - essay by Pekka Masonen. University of Tampere

    Early Southern Africa:
bullet Essence of Zimbabwe
bullet Great Zimbabwe
bullet Great Zimbabwe (BBC)
bullet Great Zimbabwe Ruins
bullet Lost Cities of the South (PBS series on Africa)
bullet Mwene Mutabe People of Zimbabwe
bullet Mystery of Great Zimbabwe (NOVA)
bullet Zimbabwe - The Great City of Stone - 23 image slide show with descriptions
bullet Zimbabwe: Who Owns It; Who Runs It?

West African Kingdoms/Empires:
bullet Ancient African States:  West Africa
bullet Ancient Ghana (BBC)
bullet Ancient Manuscripts from the Desert Libraries of Timbuktu, Library of Congress
bullet African American Journey- African American Ancestry
bullet The Ancient West African City of Benin: 1300-1897
bullet The Ancient West African City of Benin, A.D. 1300-1897 - Smithsonian National Gallery of African Art
bullet Akan and Asante History and the Gold Trade
bullet Asante (BBC)
bullet "Background to the epic of Sundiata Keita"  by James A. Jones, Ph.D., West Chester University Department of History
bullet The Benin Empire
bullet Benin bronzes - Ashanti's bronzes
bullet Collapse--Why do civilizations fall?: Mali and Songhai
bullet "Cutting to the Essence, Shaping for the Fire" - Yoruba and Akan art
bullet Great Mosque at Djenn, Mali
bullet Hausa States (BBC)
bullet Ife and Benin (BBC)
bullet Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city
bullet Journey Through Mali
bullet The Legend of Sundiata
bullet Kanem (BBC)
bullet Kanem-Bornu
bullet Kanem Bornu and the Hausa Kingdoms
bullet The Kingdom of Mali
bullet Kush - Black Africa's Earliest Civilisation
bullet Mali (BBC)
bullet Mali:  An Introduction
bullet Mali Empire and Djenne Figures
bullet Mali to Mecca: Mansa Musa Makes the Hajj
bullet Malian Magic
bullet Mansa Musa and the Songhai Empire
bullet The Mosque and West African Islam - The Baobob Project
bullet Muhammad Tur (1493-1528)
bullet Portuguese Intervention In West Africa (BBC)
bullet Queen Amina
bullet The Road to Timbuctu (PBS series on Africa)
bullet "The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa" by Mikey Brass
bullet The Slave Kingdoms of Africa (PBS series on Africa)
bullet Songhay (BBC)
bullet The Story of Africa series--"West African Kingdoms" (BBC)
bullet Sunni Ali (r. 1464-1492)
bullet Sunni Ali Ber
bullet Sunni Ali Ber (1430-1492)
bullet Timeline of West African Kingdoms
bullet Trade Across the Sahara
bullet "Urhobo Waado" - huge amount of links on the country of Nigeria
bullet West African Gallery
bullet West African Masks - NOVICA (commercial site)
bullet Yoruba Overview

Slave Trade:
bullet The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage
bullet The Atlantic Slave Trade: Demographic Simulation - World History Center (Northeastern University)
bullet The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record
bullet British Abolitionists
bullet Efforts to end the slave trade
bullet The Forgotten Holocaust: The Eastern Slave Trade KAMMAASI / Sankofa Project Guide
bullet Ignatius Sancho (1729-1780) African Man of Letters
bullet The Middle Passage
bullet Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African
bullet Records of Slave Ship Movements Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843 - Curtin, Philip D. and Herbert S. Klein
bullet Resources for slavery, abolition, and emancipation
bullet The Slave Trade Archives Project (UNESCO)
bullet "Slave Trades in Africa" - lecture (Wallace Mills - St. Mary's University, Canada)
bullet Slavery in Africa (BBC)   -   Timeline
bullet Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation
bullet "Sub-Saharan Africa, Slavery & European Trade" (Frank E. Smitha)
bullet The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade - A brief review of the triangular trade with particular reference to recent statistics
bullet UNESCO Transatlantic Slave Trade


bullet Documents Pertaining to Ancient Egypt can be found on my Middle East--Early History Page
bullet 600 BCE:  The Selection of Aspalta as King of Kush
bullet 325:  Inscription of Ezana, King of Axum
bullet 860:  Ab thmn al-Jhiz - The Essays - excerpts On the Zanj (Black Africans). Arab Muslim opinions
bullet 1067:  Glimpses of Ghana - Al-Bakir
bullet 1325-54:  Travels in Asia and Africa - Ibn Batutta
bullet 1325-54:  Ibn Battuta, The Travels of Ibn Battuta: "Ibn Battuta in Mali" ;  "in China"
bullet 14c:  The Catalan Atlas (Majorca, Spain) - features Mansa Musa
bullet late 15c:  Hassan Ibn Mohammed's Description of Gao
bullet 1479:  Arabic Map of "Ifiqiya" [i.e. Africa]
bullet 1526:  Leo Africanus - Description of Timbuktu
bullet 17c-18c?:  Plan of a ship for transporting slaves
bullet 1744:  John Wesley - Thoughts on Slavery