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           -- Protestant religious wars in the Holy Roman Empire.
        -- Charles V's attempts to deal with Catholics and Lutherans (Calvinists and Anabaptists not included).
        -- cujus regio, ejus religio (the ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land).

THE EDICT OF NANTES:   (1598) --> end the religious wars in France between Huguenots & Catholics.
        -- Huguenots were given freedomof religion.
        -- Huguenots got equal political rights with the Catholics.
        -- Huguenots could have military fortifications.
        -- Huguenots were allowed self-government in 100 French cities.

TREATY OF WESTPHALIA:   (1648) --> ended the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
        -- content  (** see your notes for political and religious results of this treaty. **)
        -- long-range effects:
                -- it ended a century of religious conflict (religious extremism burned out the populace of Europe).
                -- it broke Hapsburg power and ended their domination of Europe.
                -- a balance of power emerged through a series of ever-changing political alliances.
                -- the center of political power shifted from Central Europe and the Mediterranean to the nations of
                   Atlantic coast.

TREATY OF UTRECHT:   (1713-1714)  --> ( ** see your sheets on the Commercial & Dynastic Wars ** )

PEACE OF PARIS:  (1763)  --> ended the Seven Year's War (** see your sheets on the Commercial &
                                                        Dynastic Wars ** )
        -- French commercial and colonial dominance passed to Britain.

CONGRESS OF VIENNA:   (1814-1815)   -->   ended the Napoleonic Wars.
        -- legitimacy (rightful, legitimate rulers deposed by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored to
        -- compensation (the nations that made important contributions to Napoleon's defeat were compensated
           by territory).
                    Russia --> got Finland and most of Poland.
                    Prussia --> got part of Poland and various German territories, including some bordering the
                                     the Rhine River.
                    Britain --> got colonial possessions that it had occupied during the war, including Malta, Ceylon,
                                    and South Africa.
        -- victorious nations that gave up territory were compensated by other territories.
                    Holland --> lost Ceylon and South Africa but got Belgium.
                    Austria --> lost Belgium but got Lombardy and Venetia.
                    Sweden --> lost Finland but got Norway.

TREATY OF FRANKFURT:   (1871)   -->   ended the Franco-Prussian War.
        -- France ceded to Germany Alsace and Lorraine (rich in coal and iron).
        -- France agreed to pay Germany a huge war indemnity.
        -- France consented to German military occupation until the indemnity was paid.
        -- results?
                    -- by treating France harshly, Bismarck planted the seeds of hatred and revenge which helped lead
                       to World War I and to the harsh treatment of a defeated Germany after the war.

CONGRESS OF BERLIN:   (1876)   --> an attempt by Bismarck to solve the Balkan problems.
        -- Turkey granted Austria-Hungary the So. Slavic provinces of Bosnia and Herzogovina.
        -- Turkey gave Britain the Mediterranean island of Cyprus.
        -- Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became independent of Ottoman control.
        -- Bulgaria was given self-government within the Ottoman Empire.
        -- Russia was given certain Balkan territories along her southwestern border.

VERSAILLES TREATY:   (1919)  --> ended World War I
        -- President Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points"
        -- territorial
                    -- Germany surrendered Alsace-Lorraine to France.
                    -- Germany gave over the Saar Valley to League of Nations authority and Saar coal mines to
                       France control with the provision that, after 15 years, the Saar inhabitants would decide their
                       own political fate by a plebiscite.
                    -- Germany gave up minor border regions to Denmark and Belgium.
                    -- Polish Corridor created.
                    -- the port of Danzig on the Baltic Sea placed under League of Nations control and open for
                       Polish use.
                    -- Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland a future problem), Yugoslavia, Poland emerge
                       as new nations.
        -- colonial
                    -- Germany ceded all its colonies to the Allies to be held as League of Nations mandates.
                    -- secret arrangements made during the war and incorporated in League of Nations mandates
                       in the Middle East (Sykes-Picot Agreement, Balfour Declaration, Hussein-McMahon Letters).
        -- disarmament (prevent Germany from ever waging war again)
                    -- German army was limited to 100,000 volunteers.
                    -- conscription was forbidden.
                    -- the Rhineland was demilitarized.
                    -- German navy reduced to a few small ships.
                    -- submarines, military aircraft, and war industries were prohibited.
        -- war guilt clause (Germany was held solely responsible for starting World War I).
        -- Germany must pay reparations (she made a few payments until 1931 and afterwards Hitler ignored this
        -- League of Nations created.

MARSHALL PLAN:   (1947)  -->economic recovery program for Europe after World War II.  ( ** see your notes
                                                        for details. **)