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Main Themes:

1.  A basic cause of peasant discontent in the mid-18c was the growing desire of landlords to change
     the traditional ways of production in order to maximize their profits.  (ex: enclosure movement)
2.  As in agriculture, Britain took the lead in the Industrial Revolution, favored as it was by rich deposits
     of coal and iron ore, a stable political structure, consumer demand from the colonies, a
     law-tax structure and relative social stability.
3.  The middle classes tended to measure success in monetary terms and were increasingly dissatisfied
     with their lack of political influence.
4.  Classical economicst dominated policy discussions in the mid-19c.
5.  The early socialists generally applauded the new productive capacity of industrialism but decried
     industrial mismanagement and thought that human society should be organized as a community
     rather than merely as a conglomerate of selfish individuals.
6.  Marx believed that class conflict in the 19c had become simplified into a struggle between the
     bougeoisie and the proletariat, a struggle which the proletariat would eventually win and which
     would result in a property-less and class-less society.
7.  In 1848, a series of unsuccessful liberal and national revolutions spread across the continent.

I. Industrialization: ---> the changes in manufacturing methods and the effects of the machine on humanity.
        A.  Roots:
             -- the Renaissance spirit (seeking material goods).
             -- the scientific approach in solving problems (Scientific Revolution).
             -- the Commercial Revolution.
             -- the putting-out (domestic) system.
        B.  Economic Results:
             -- factory system.
             -- higher standard of living.
             -- introduction of modern, laissez-faire capitalism:
                    -- private ownership of property.
                    -- free enterprise.
                    -- profit motive.
                    -- competition.
                    -- market economy (Law of Supply and Demand).
             -- economic competition among nations (protective tariffs).
             -- labor problems.
             -- new economic theories --> Adam Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Mill.
        C.  Political Results:
             -- rise of the middle and working classes as new political power groups.
             -- aid to nationalism.
             -- impetus to imperialism.
             -- the rise of labor unions as a political force.
        D.  Social Results:
             -- a more socially dynamic society (with new levels of social classes).
             -- increase in population.
             -- growth of cities and the problems resulting from this.
             -- improved status of women.
             -- new family patterns.
             -- more leisure time.
             -- impetus to universal education.
             -- humanitarian/social reform movements increase to meet the problems created by industrialization.
        E.  They sought the removal of economic restraints (
laissez-faire economics).

II.  Socialism:
        A.  The government is seen as the representative of the people and owns and operates the major means
              of production and distribution.
        B.  The government determines the needs of the people and provides goods and services for the people's use.
        C.  The government plans the economy, it allocates capital, directs the flow of raw materials, and provides for
             the workers according to their needs.
        D.  Utopian Socialists --> Saint-Simon, Owen, Fourier (they lacked any meaningful political following).
        E.  Fabian Socialists --> mostly in Britain.
        F.  Marxism --> The Communist Manifesto & Das Kapital.
             -- historically, the organization of the means of production has always involved conflict between the
                classes who owned and controlled the means of production and those classes who worked for them.
             -- only radical social transformation can eliminate the social and economic evils that are inherent in the
                very structure of production.
             -- economic interpretation of history.
             -- class struggle.
             -- inevitability of communism (capitalism has within it the seeds of its own ultimate destruction).

III.  The Revolutions of 1848: 
        A.  Causes:
             -- food shortages and unemployment.
             -- a new willingness of political liberals to ally with the working classes in order to put increased pressure
                on the government, even though the new allies had different aims.
             -- a movement to create national states that would reorganize or replace existing political entities
             -- unprecedented economic growth.
             -- increased influence of socialism as a political force.
        B.  France --> temporarily successful only.
             -- Louis Blanc.
             -- eventual election of Napoleon III and the creation of the Second French Republic, then Second French
        C.  Austrian Empire --> unsuccessful
             -- Bohemians, Italians, and Hungarians (Louis Kossuth).
             -- these revolutions forced Metternich to flee the country.
             -- serfdom was abolished.
        D.  Italy & Germany --> unsuccessful
             -- Sardinia-Piedmont retained its new liberal constitution. 
             -- Prussia adopted an undemocratic constitution (the conservatives regain control here!).
        E.  Effects of these revolutions (Why did they fail??)
             -- brought about the downfall of Metternich and his "Concert of Europe."
             -- a republic and universal manhood suffrage in France.
             -- a liberal constitution in Piedmont-Sardinia.
             -- abolition of serfdom in Austria.
             -- these revolutions marked the last effort in 19c Europe to overthrow reactionary governments by
                revolution alone.
             -- the European middle class ceased to be revolutionary.  it became increasingly concerned about the
                protection of its property against radical political and social movements.
             -- the political initiative passed from the liberals to the conservatives and socialists.
        F.  Anarchism --> Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin.


enclosure movement
John Stuart Mill
factory Act of 1833
Corn Laws
putting-out system
Iron Law of Wages
Marxian Dialectic
Louis Blanc
National Workshops
Frankfurt Assembly
Lajos Kossuth