QUESTION

Identify some of the major decisions that were made which led to World War I.  Be sure to identify the key points where different choices could have prevented the conflict from happening.

 

DOCUMENT   #1

 

DOCUMENT   #2

The Black Hand

Article 1.  This organization is created for the purpose of realizing the national ideal: the union of all Serbs.  Membership is open to every Serb, without distinction of sex, religion, or place of birth. And to all those who are sincerely devoted to this cause.

Article 2.  This organization prefers terrorist action to intellectual propaganda, and for this reason it must remain an absolute secret.

Article 3. The organization bears the name Ujedinjenje ili Smirt (Union or Death).

Article 4.  To fulfill its purpose, the organization will do the following:

1.       exercise influence on government circles, on the various social classes, and on the entire social life of the kingdom of Serbia, which is considered the Piedmont of the Serbian nation;

2.       Organize revolutionary action in all territories inhabited by Serbs;

3.       Beyond the frontiers of Serbia, fight with all means the enemies of the Serbian national ideals;

4.       Maintain amicable relations with all states, peoples, organizations, and individuals who support Serbia and the Serbian element;

SOURCE:  By-laws of the Organization Union or Death.

 

DOCUMENT   #3

 

Great Britain

France

Russia

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Turkey

Population

46,407,037

39,601,509

167,000,000

65,000,000

49,882,233,331,111

21,373,900

Soldiers available on mobilization

711,00

3,500,000

4,423,000

8,500,000

3,000,000

360,000

Merchant fleet (net steam tonnage)

11,538,000

1,098,000

(1913) 486,914

3,096,000

(1912) 555,784

(1911) 66,8778

Battleships (built and being built)

64

28

16

40

16

 

Cruisers

121

34

14

57

12

 

Submarines

64

73

29

23

6

 

Annual value of foreign trade (in pounds)

1,223,152,000

424,000,000

190,247,000

1,030,380,000

198,712,000

67,472,000

Annual steel production (tons)

6,903,000

4,333,000

4,416,000

17,024,000

2,642,000

 

Railway mileage

23,441

25,471

46,573

39,439

27,545

3,882

SOURCE:  Chart on the world powers at the start of the war from the Illustrated History of the World Wars..

 

DOCUMENT   #4

CONSUL JONES TO SIR EDWARD GREY. SERAJEVO JUNE 28, 1914
DESPACHED 12.30 P.M. RECEIVED 4.0 P.M.

ACCORDING TO NEWS HERE HEIR APPARENT AND HIS
CONSORT ASSASINATED THIS MORNING BY MEANS OF AN EXPLOSIVE NATURE.

SOURCE: Telegram form Serajevo to England.

 

DOCUMENT   #5

…One must say wit the greatest determination: War is for an afflicted people the only remedy.  When the state exclaims: My very existence is at stake! Then the social self-seeking must disappear and all party hatred be silent…The sacrifice of nationalities for one another is nowhere invested with such beauty as war…It is indeed political idealism which fosters war, whereas materialism rejects it.  What a perversion of morality to want to banish heroism from human life…To the historian who lives in the realms of the Will, it is quite clear that the furtherance of an everlasting peace id fundamentally reactionary.  He sees hat to banish war from history would be to banish all progress and becoming.  It is only periods of exhaustion, weariness and mental stagnation that have dallied with the dream of everlasting peace…The living God will see to it that war returns again and again as a terrible medicine for humanity.

SOURCE:  Excerpt from Politics written by the influential German historian, Heinrich von Tritschke.

 

DOCUMENT   #6



Anglo-German “Naval Holiday”—“We could do a lot of damage with these things!”

SOURCE:  Simplicissimus, April 14, 1913.

 

DOCUMENT   #7

“The Embarrassed Trainer”—Nicholas II and his Balkan canines.

SOURCE:  Simplicissimus, July 21, 1913.

 

DOCUMENT   #8

SOURCE:  Europe in 1914 right before the breakout of WWI from The Great War.

 

DOCUMENT   #9

The Royal Serbian Government [will] further undertake:

1.       To suppress any publication which incites hatred and contempt of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and the general tendency of which is directed against territorial integrity;

2.       To dissolve immediately the society styled “Narodna Odbrana,” to confiscate all its means of propaganda, and to proceed in the same manner against other societies and their branches in Serbia which engage in propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.  The Royal government shall take the necessary measures to prevent the societies dissolved from continuing their activities under another name and form;

3.       To eliminate without delay from  public instruction in Serbia, both as  regards the teaching body and also as regards the methods of instruction, everything that serves, or might serve, to foment the propaganda against Austria-Hungary;

4.       To remove from military service, and from the administration in general, all officers and functionaries guilty of propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy whose names and deeds the Austro-Hungarian government reserve to themselves the right of communicating to the royal government;

5.       To accept the collaboration in Serbia of representatives of the Austro-Hungarian Government for the suppression of subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the monarchy;

6.       To take judicial proceedings against accessories to the plot of 28th June who are on Serbian territory; delegates of the Austro-Hungarian government will take part in this investigation relating thereto;

7.       To proceed with out delay to the arrest of Major Voija Tankositch and of the individual named Milan Ciganovitch, a Serbian State employee, who have been compromised by the results of the magisterial inquiry at Serajevo;

10.    To notify the Imperial and Royal government without delay of the execution of the measures compromised under the preceding heads.

The Austro-Hungarian Government expect[s] the reply of the Royal Government by 6 o’clock on Saturday evening the 25th July.

SOURCE:  Austria Ultimatum to Serbia, 1914..

 

DOCUMENT   #10



“A Chain of Friendship”—“If Austria attacks Serbia, Russia will fall upon Austria, Germany upon Russia, and France and England upon Germany.”

SOURCE:  Brooklyn Eagle, July, 1914.

 

DBQ Question created by::

Sarah Markham
Class of 2002
Maria Regina H. S.
Hartsdale, NY  10530