QUESTION

The Industrial Revolution created new political and economic opportunities and generated new ideologies that greatly affected European society. Using your knowledge of European history and the documents below, assess the validity of this statement.

 

DOCUMENT   #1

 

DOCUMENT   #2

SOURCE:  A Trade Union Membership Card.

 

DOCUMENT   #3

SOURCE:  Women working at a Telephone Exchange in Paris in 1904.

 

DOCUMENT   #4

SPREAD OF RAILWAYS IN TEN SELECTED COUNTRIES 

[Length of line open in kilometers (1 km = 5/8 mile)] 

 

1840

1860

1880

1900

Austria-Hungary

  144

4,543

18,507

36,330

Belgium

  334

1,730

 4,112

  4,591

France

  496

9,167

23,089

38,109

Germany

  469

11,089

33,838

51,678

Great Britain

2,390

14,603

25,060

30,079

Italy

    20

 2,404

 9,290

16,429

Netherlands

    17

    335

 1,846

 2,776

Russia

    27

 1,626

22,865

53,234

Spain

    -

 1,917

 7,490

13,214

Sweden

    -

    527

 5,876

11,303

 

DOCUMENT   #5

“Every man…is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man, or order of men. …. the sovereign has only three duties to attend to…first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting…every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it…thirdly, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions…”

SOURCE:  Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, 1776.

 

DOCUMENT   #6

“When trade was brisk what were your hours? --From 5 in the morning to 9 in the evening….

            Will you state the effect that those long hours had upon the state of your health and feelings? —I was, when working those long hours, commonly very much fatigued at night…and so sick often that I could not eat, and what I did eat I vomited….

State the condition of the children towards the latter part of the day…--…they cannot keep up with it very well, and the consequence is that they are beaten to spur them on….

What were you beaten with principally? – A strap…a stick…and there is a kind of roller which runs on the top of the machine…I have been struck very severely with it myself…and I have seen other children have their heads broken with it….

Have not a considerable number of the females employed in mills illegitimate children very early in life? –…I have known some of them have illegitimate children when they were between 16 and 17 years of age.”

SOURCE:  Excerpts from the Sadler Commission, 1832.

 

DOCUMENT   #7

“The government ought to be considered as the supreme regulator of production and endowed for this duty with great power. This task would consist of fighting competition and of finally overcoming it. The government ought to float a loan with the proceeds of which it should erect social workshops in the most important branches of national industry.”

SOURCE:  Louis Blanc’s The Organization of Labour, 1840.

 

DOCUMENT   #8

“The modern bourgeois society…has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new forms of struggle in place of the old ones….Modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. Masses of laborers, crowded into the factory, are organized like soldiers….The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all the other proletarian parties: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat…The distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolition of property generally, but the abolition of bourgeois property.”

SOURCE:  Excerpts from The Communist Manifesto, 1848.

 

DOCUMENT   #9

“…commerce is a mode of exchange in which the seller has the right to defraud with impunity and to determine by himself without arbitration the profit which he ought to receive…. It makes no sense to say: ‘Good faith ought to reign in commerce.’ One should say: ‘Good faith ought to reign in order to destroy commerce.’”

SOURCE:  The writings of Charles Fourier, 1853-1858.

 

DOCUMENT   #10

“[In addition to the demand for universal suffrage for all above twenty years of age, secret ballot, freedom of the press, free and compulsory education, etc.,] the socialist labor party of Germany demands the following reforms in the present social organization: …extension of political rights and freedom…a single progressive income tax…unlimited right of association…a normal working day…prohibition of child labor and all forms of labor by women which are dangerous to health or morality…laws for the protection of the life and health of workmen…inspection…by officials….effective system of enforcement…regulation of prison labor.”

SOURCE:  Excerpts from The Gotha Program, 1875 .

 

DOCUMENT   #11

Arise ye starvelings [or workers] from your slumbers
Arise ye criminals of want
For reason in revolt now thunders
and at last ends the age of cant.
Now away with all your superstitions
Servile masses arise, arise!
We’ll change forthwith [or henceforth] the old conditions
And spurn the dust to win the prize.

SOURCE:  The Internationale, a song of socialist parties written by Eugene Pottier, 1871..

DBQ Question created by::

Lauren Losapio
Class of 2002
Maria Regina H. S.
Hartsdale, NY  10530