Glossary of Terms
|Auschwitz:||located in Poland, it is
the most infamous of the concentration camps;
200,000,000 people were killed there.
|Aryan:||the race that Hitler
desired all of Germany to be; fair skin with blond
hair and blue eyes.
bombardment involving massed air forces and
mechanized ground forces; violent offensive with great speed and
force used by Hitler.
|Bund deutscher Madel:||Nazi youth group for girls.|
|Communism:||a totalitarian system of
government in which a single authoritarian
party controls state-owned means of production; a final stage of
society in Marxist theory in which the state has withered away and
economic goods are distributed equitably.
agency in Italy. It established clubhouses, athletic
facilities, etc in order to monitor the activities of the citizens in Italy.
followed the regular German army rounding up Jews and
executing them and burying them in mass graves.
|Fascism:||a political philosophy,
movement, or regime that exalts nation and
often race above the individual, and that stands for a centralized
autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic
and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of the opposition.
|Fascio di Combattimento:||first Fascist movement
in Europe; headed by Mussolini after World
|"Final Solution":||Hitlers ultimate
goal of destroying the Jews and having a final victory
of the Aryan Nation; the decision to create the concentration camps as
a way to finally exterminate the Jewish race.
|Fuhrerprinzip:||the idea of a one-sided party following a single leader.|
|Gestapo:||Nazi police used to round up Jews often through violence.|
|Gleichschaltung:||the coordination of all institutes under Nazi control.|
|The Great Depression:||extreme economic crisis
that befell the world in the 1930s; It brought
mass poverty, unemployment, and despair.
*** enabled totalitarian leaders like Stalin, Hitler, & Mussolini to seize
|Hitler Jugend:||Nazi youth group for boys.|
|Holocaust:||the mass genocide of
millions of Jews, Gypsies, Slavic peoples, the
handicapped and other "unfavorable"members of society by the Nazis;
Groups of people were rounded up by the Nazis and carted off to
concentration camps in which they were killed immediately in gas
chambers, forced to do hard labor and then killed, or used for
|Kraft durch Freude:||"Strength through
Joy"; program to offer German workers activities to
fill their leisure time (i.e. films, concerts, operas).
|Kristallnacht:||November 9-10, 1938
"the night of broken glass"; Nazi rampage in
which synagogues were burned, 7,000 Jewish businesses were burned,
and approximately 100 Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish males
were sent to concentration camps.
proprietors in Russia who employed wage labor;
targeted as representing capitalism in a communist society.
|Madagascar Plan:||failed plan to the Nazis
to ship the Jews to the African island of
|Mein Kampf:||book written my Hitler
in which he describes his political strategies;
theories on racial superiority, and thoughts on propaganda and the
|Nazism:||the body of political
and economic doctrines held and put into effect by
the National Socialist Workers' Party in the Third German Reich,
including the totalitarian principle of government, state control of all
industry, predominance of groups assumed to be racially superior, and
the supremacy of the fuhrer.
|"Night Witches":||Soviet female pilots who helped to defeat the Germans at Stalingrad.|
|Nuremberg laws:||created in 1935,
separated Jews from the rest of the Germans
socially, politically, and economically (i.e., forbade marriages
between Jews and "pure" Germans).
|Ostara:||periodical published by
Lanz von Liebenfels in which he claimed his
belief that the German Aryans were an exalted group that was
destined to dominate the world.
|squadristi:||groups of armed Italian
fascists who used terrorist tactics to help
achieve fascist political power.
|Sturmabteilung:||the police force of the Nazi party.|
|Yalta:||the site of the peace
conference after World War Two during
February 5-11, 1945. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill attended.
|Neville Chamberlain:||Prime Minister of Great
Britain (1936-1940); attended the Munich
Conference and agreed to appease all of Hitlers demands. After the
Conference, he declared that the world had "peace for our time".
|Winston Churchill:||Prime Minister of Great Britain (1940-45, 1951-56).|
|Joseph Goebbels:||head of propaganda in Nazi Germany.|
|Reinhard Heydrich:||head of Schutzstaffel/Reich
Security Police (SS); Hitler gave him
administrative control over the final solution.
|Adolph Hitler:||Dictator of Nazi Germany (1933-1945).|
|Adolf Lanz:||ex-Catholic monk who
believed in the superiority of the Aryan race;
published the periodical, Ostara,in the 1920; &30's in which he
promulgates these beliefs; greatly influenced Hitler.
|Benito Mussolini:||fascist dictator of Italy (1927-1944).|
|Franklin D. Roosevelt:||President of the United States (1932-1945).|
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