Glossary of Terms

Auschwitz: located in Poland, it is the most infamous of the concentration camps;
 200,000,000 people were killed there.
Aryan: the race that Hitler desired all of Germany to be; fair skin with blond
hair and blue eyes.
Blitzkrieg: sudden overpowering bombardment involving massed air forces and
mechanized ground forces; violent offensive with great speed and
force used by Hitler.
Bund deutscher Madel: Nazi youth group for girls.
Communism: a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian
party controls state-owned means of production; a final stage of
society in Marxist theory in which the state has withered away and
economic goods are distributed equitably.
Dopolavoro: national recreation agency in Italy.  It established clubhouses, athletic
 facilities, etc in order to monitor the activities of the citizens in Italy.
Einsatzgruppen: "death units"; followed the regular German army rounding up Jews and
executing them and burying them in mass graves.
Fascism: a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and
often race above the individual, and that stands for a centralized
autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic
and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of the opposition.
Fascio di Combattimento: first Fascist movement in Europe; headed by Mussolini after World
War I.
"Final Solution": Hitler’s ultimate goal of destroying the Jews and having a final victory
of the Aryan Nation; the decision to create the concentration camps as
a way to finally exterminate the Jewish race.
Fuhrerprinzip: the idea of a one-sided party following a single leader.
Gestapo: Nazi police used to round up Jews often through violence.
Gleichschaltung: the coordination of all institutes under Nazi control.
The Great Depression: extreme economic crisis that befell the world in the 1930’s; It brought
mass poverty, unemployment, and despair.
*** enabled totalitarian leaders like Stalin, Hitler, & Mussolini to seize
power. ***
Hitler Jugend: Nazi youth group for boys.
Holocaust: the mass genocide of millions of Jews, Gypsies, Slavic peoples, the
 handicapped and other "unfavorable"members of society by the Nazis;  
Groups of people were rounded up by the Nazis and carted off to
concentration camps in which they were killed immediately in gas
chambers, forced to do hard labor and then killed, or used for
medical experiments.
Kraft durch Freude: "Strength through Joy"; program to offer German workers activities to
fill their leisure time (i.e. films, concerts, operas).
Kristallnacht: November 9-10, 1938 "the night of broken glass"; Nazi rampage in
which synagogues were burned, 7,000 Jewish businesses were burned,
and approximately 100 Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish males
were sent to concentration camps.
Kulaks: well-to-do peasant proprietors in Russia who employed wage labor;
targeted as representing capitalism in a communist society.
Madagascar Plan: failed plan to the Nazis to ship the Jews to the African island of
Mein Kampf: book written my Hitler in which he describes his political strategies;
theories on racial superiority, and thoughts on propaganda and the
Nazism: the body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by
the National Socialist Workers' Party in the Third German Reich,
including the totalitarian principle of government, state control of all
industry, predominance of groups assumed to be racially superior, and
the supremacy of the fuhrer.
"Night Witches": Soviet female pilots who helped to defeat the Germans at Stalingrad.
Nuremberg laws: created in 1935, separated Jews from the rest of the Germans
socially, politically, and economically (i.e., forbade marriages
between Jews and "pure" Germans).
Ostara: periodical published by Lanz von Liebenfels in which he claimed his
belief that the German Aryans were an exalted group that was
destined to dominate the world.
squadristi: groups of armed Italian fascists who used terrorist tactics to help
achieve fascist political power.
Sturmabteilung: the police force of the Nazi party.
Yalta: the site of the peace conference after World War Two during
February 5-11, 1945. Roosevelt, Stalin, and  Churchill attended.


Neville Chamberlain: Prime Minister of Great Britain (1936-1940); attended the Munich   
Conference and agreed to appease all of Hitler’s demands. After the
Conference, he declared that the world had "peace for our time".
Winston Churchill: Prime Minister of Great Britain (1940-45, 1951-56).
Joseph Goebbels: head of propaganda in Nazi Germany.
Reinhard Heydrich: head of Schutzstaffel/Reich Security Police (SS); Hitler gave him
administrative control over the final solution.
Adolph Hitler: Dictator of Nazi Germany (1933-1945).
Adolf Lanz: ex-Catholic monk who believed in the superiority of the Aryan race;
published the periodical, Ostara,in the 1920; &30's in which he
promulgates these beliefs; greatly influenced Hitler.
Benito Mussolini: fascist dictator of Italy (1927-1944).
Franklin D. Roosevelt: President of the United States (1932-1945).

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