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Vladimir Ulianov (Lenin): Bolshevik leader of the Russian Social Democratic Party; advocate for violent Revolution; issued his "April Theses"; July 1917, Lenin is forced to flee to Finland, but returned, and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
"April Theses": Issued on April 20, 1917 by Lenin and stated, contrary to popular Marxist belief, that bourgeois revolution was not needed and that Russia could directly move to socialism. Lenin wrote that in order to overthrow the Provisional Government, control must be gained over workers and Peasants. The famous slogan used in the "April Theses", was "Peace, Land, Bread."
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Signed on March 3, 1918, between Germany and the new Communist government, in which the Communists gave up control eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic Provinces.
Bolsheviks: The radical offshoot of the Russian Social Democratic Party which fought to overthrow the Provisional Government.
Mensheviks: The more conservative, socialist wing of the Social Democratic Party which made up a minority.
Communism: In Russia, the Bolshevik regime which sought to overthrow the capitalist system in hopes of creating a new government which was ruled by the bourgeois, or working class.
Petrograd: The capital city of Russia, formerly St. Petersburg, formed in 1917, where the March Revolution erupted.
Bloody Sunday: January 22, 1905 – Tsarist troops opened fire on a peaceful demonstration of workers in St. Petersburg, starting the Revolution of 1905, which failed.
Leon Trotsky: An exiled revolutionary who assisted Lenin in forming the Military Revolutionary Committee in the Petrograd, after switching Parties, from the Mensheviks, to the           Bolsheviks.
Proletariat: The working class, as it is referred to in Karl Marx’ Communist Manifesto. Marx predicts the eventual overtake of the Government by the Proletariat.
Social Democracy: The political ideology of socialism, including values of a Representative government, and private property.
Duma: The Russian word for "assembly", the Duma was the lower house of the Russian Parliament, which was created by Nicholas II. Although the Duma’s consent was required for all legislation to pass, it was often disregarded.
Czar Nicholas II: The last Russian Czar; ordered soldiers to fire at peaceful Crowds on "Bloody Sunday"; forced to abdicate the throne after the March Revolution of 1917.
Bourgeois: the propertied middle class.
Alexander Kerensky: Socialist revolutionary who became prime minister of the Provisional government.
"Peace, Land and Bread!": the famous slogan of Kerensky used in his "April Theses" and of the Bolsheviks, who promised to take Russia out of World War I, organized to seize the peasant’s land, and wanted control by workers of industrial production. Another famous slogan of the Bolsheviks was "All power to the Soviets."
Fr. Georgy Apollonovich Gapon: a priest who was leader of workers’ organizations. He led     thousands of people on January 22, 1905 (known as ‘Bloody   Sunday’), to the Winter Palace to present their demands in a
petition to Czar Nicholas II asking for reforms.
"New Economic Policy" (NEP): a policy of temporary economic liberalization in the USSR from 1921-1928. It was introduced by Vladimir Lenin to revitalize the economy, increase food production, and permit business growth after several years of civil war. The NEP was replaced in 1928 by Joseph Stalin’s "Five-Year Plan."
Commissar: a Communist Party official in charge of indoctrination and enforcement of party loyalty.
Red Army Cavalry (Red Guard): army forces that defended the New Bolshevik (Communist)     state against the white armies during the Russian Civil War      (1918-1921).
Milyukov (Miliukov): a Russian historian who lived from 1859 to 1943, he founded the Russia’s Constitutional Democratic Party and was minister of foreign affairs in the Russian Provisional Government of 1917. He was committed to achieving a Western-style parliamentary democracy in Russia.


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