Primary Source Documents
bullet "The Connection Between Medieval and Renaissance Expansion" - historian, Seymour Phillips
bullet map - "The Americas Before Columbus:  1450"
bullet "A New Europe" - lecture notes by Prof. Gerhard Rempel (Western New England College)
bullet NM's Creative Impulse - The Development of Civilization - The Americas (mucho links)
bullet Sir Francis Drake
bullet 1492 -  An Ongoing Voyage
bullet Cities of Gold - The Search for El Dorado (PBS series on "The West")
bullet The Columbian Exchange
bullet Columbus & the Age of Discovery
bullet The Columbus Navigation Home Page
bullet The Conquistadors (PBS)
bullet "The 'Crimes' of Christopher Columbus" - Dinesh D'Souza
bullet Discoverers Web
bullet European Voyages of Exploration - The 15c and 16c
bullet Incas and Conquistadors
bullet Latitude - The Art & Science of 15c Navigation
bullet map - "Portuguese Explorations"
bullet map - "The First Voyage of Columbus"
bullet map - "Spanish & Portuguese Exploration, 1400-1600"
bullet map - "Voyages of Discovery and World Empires, 1550"
bullet "Measles and Smallpox as an Allied Army of the Conquistadors of America"
bullet "Plagues & Peoples - The Columbian Exchange" - essay by Dr. Ian Carr
bullet Prince Henry, the Navigator
bullet Spanish Exploration & the Conquest of Native America
bullet "The Conquest of the New World- A 19th Century View" - historian, William Smyth
bullet "The Conquest of the New World- A Late 20th Century View" - historian, Norman Davies
bullet Cultural Readings - Colonization and Print in the Americas
bullet map - "Audiencias of the Viceroyalty of New Spain: 1650"
bullet map - "Audiencias of the Viceroyalty of Peru: 1650"
bullet map - "European Empires-1660"
bullet New Spain - The Frontiers of Faith
bullet Spanish Colonial Administration (web chart)
bullet Spanish Conquest
bullet The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas:  A Visual Record
bullet "Beginning of the Transatlantic Slave Trade" - historian, Paul Lovejoy
bullet "The Great Food Migration" - Newsweek, 1991 (special issue)
bullet map - "The African Diaspora"
bullet map - "The Atlantic Slave Trade"
bullet map - "The Dutch Empire and Trade Routes"
bullet map - "Portuguese Empires in Asia: 1600s"
bullet The Slave Trade (Spartacus)
bullet Sub-Saharan Africa, Slavery and European Trade
bullet Trade Products in Early Modern History
bullet "A Traditional Analysis of the Slave Trade" - historian, James Pope-Hennessy
bullet Where Food Crops Originated - Seeds of Change Garden


                                Web Links
                                     How to read a primary source document
                                     Why Study History Through Primary Sources

bullet 1400:  Painting, "Pepper Harvest" - African slaves at Work in the East Indies
bullet 1466:  Mid-15c European World Map
bullet 1489:  Map of the World (British Museum)
bullet 1492:  Privileges and Prerogatives Granted by Their Catholic Majesties to Christopher Columbus
bullet 1494:  Columbus' Letter to the King and Queen of Spain
bullet 1497-98:  Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India
bullet 16c:  Theodore De Bry's Copper Engravings
bullet 1511-20:  King Ferdinand's Letter to the Tainos
bullet 1512-13:  Laws of Burgos
bullet 1519:  An Aztec Account of the Spanish Conquest of America
bullet 1519-1522:  Magellan's Voyage Round the World
bullet 1520:  Cortez' Second Letter to Charles V
bullet 1526:  Map of South America in the time of Pizarro
bullet 1529:  Royal Contract for the Conquest of Peru
bullet 1537:  Sublemus Dei - Pope Paul III's encyclical on slavery
bullet 1542:  The New Laws of the Indies
bullet 1543:  Letter from India, to the Society of Jesus at Rome - St. Francis Xavier
bullet 1550:  Silver at Potosi
bullet 1560:  "In Defense of the Indians-The Sermon of Father Montesinos" - Bartolomé de Las Cásas in his book, History of the Indies
bullet 1564-1565:  The English Enter the Atlantic Slave Trade
bullet 1580s:  various engravings of Theodor De Bry - click on each title midway down the page
bullet 1580:  "On Cannibals" - Michel de Montaigne
bullet 1595:  Letter from a Basque Miner in Potosí to a Merchant in Seville
bullet late 16c:  Matteo Ricci - A Jesuit Mission to China
bullet 1613:  An Englishman's Perception of Southern Africa
bullet 1614:  A Contract for African Slaves
bullet 1700:  An Eyewitness Describes the Slave Trade in Guinea
bullet 1713:  "The Geographer" - painting by Johannes Vermeer

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing