Assignment #1
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. Label the map of "The Topography of Ancient Rome" as indicated below:
    bodies of water [blue ink]:
         Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea
    rivers [blue ink]:
         Po, Tiber, Rubicon
    mountains/peaks [brown ink]:
         Alps, Apennines, Mt. Etna, Mt. Vesuvius
    islands [green ink]:
         Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
    cities [red ink]:
         Rome, Ostia, Syracuse, Carthage, Pompeii, Brindisium, Tarentum
    peoples [purple ink]:
         Latins, Gauls, Etruscans, Greeks
    other [black ink]:
         Magna Graecia
     

  2. What natural/geographic advantages did the city of Rome have?

  3. How was Rome's geography different from that of Greece?  How was it similar?

  4. Why was Ostia important to the city of Rome?

  5. Why do you think that the Romans could unify their peninsula and the Greeks could not?

  6. According to Roman mythology, how was Rome founded?  What was the real story?

  7. What did the Romans borrow from the Etruscans?

  8. Why is 509 BCE an important date in Roman history?

  9. Define the term "republic."

 

Terms:

 

 
  Assignment #2
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. Do reading #1 and answer the following questions:
         * Who were the patricians and plebeians?
         * Why did patricians want to prevent plebeians from holding important positions
           in Roman society and government?
         * What were the roles and terms of office of the following?:  consuls, tribunes, senators,
           assemblymen?
         * How did the office of dictator contribute to the balance and stability of the
           Roman Republic?
         * What were the requirements for Roman citizenship?  What "rights" did Roman
           citizens have?
         * How "democratic" was the government of the early Roman Republic?
  2. Why was Cincinnatus considered to be the ideal Roman citizen?
  3. What was the purpose of the Twelve Tables?
  4. Do reading #2 and answer the following questions:
         * How did Roman law safeguard the rights of individuals?
         * Which laws restricted the freedoms of individuals?
         * How did Roman law maintain order and provide security for the entire society?
         * How does this list of laws compare to those of our society today?
         * Which laws seem unfair or tyrannical?  Explain why.
         * Why do you think many praised the Twelve Tables and preferred to live under this
           Roman legal code instead of under the laws of their native governments?
 

Terms:

 
  Assignment #3
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. Do reading #1 and answer the following questions:
         *
    Who was the paterfamilias?  What role did he play in Roman society?
         *
    What power was wielded by the paterfamilias?
         *
    What was the relationship of the Roman family to the Roman state?
         *
    List some of the characteristics of the official Roman state religion.
         * What did the hearth symbolize for the Roman family?  Who took care of the hearth?
         * How was religion linked to the state in early Roman times?
         *
    What were some of the key virtues that were taught to Roman children?
         * In your opinion, what was the most important Roman “virtue?”
  2. Do reading #2 and answer the following questions:
         * Why did Marcellus murder his daughter?  What right did he have to do so?
         * What rights did women have under early Roman law?
         * Who controlled the property and other assets of Roman women?
         * Why did the women protest the Oppian law?
         * Which of Cato's objections to women's behavior do you think was the most important?
        *  Since women did not vote or sit in the assemblies, how can the outcome of the
           incident be explained?
 

Terms:

 

  • Cincinnatus
 
  Assignment #4
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. How did Rome gain power in the Mediterranean region?
  2. What were the causes and results of the Punic War?
  3. How did the Romans rule their new lands?
  4. What type of problems did the Roman Republic face by 133 B.C.E.?
  5. What were the causes of the troubles faced by Roman farmers?
  6. What solution did Tiberius Gracchus propose?  Besides selfishness and greed, why might people oppose his plan?
  7. What ultimately happened to the Gracchi brothers?
  8. Do the reading and answer these questions:
         * What rights did slaves have during the Roman Republic?
         * Why were slaves freed [manumitted]?
         * What were the two different categories of slaves?  Which category was "better?"  Why?
         * How were gladiators recruited?
         * Why would a free man want to become a gladiator?
         * Why did the slaves revolt in 73 B.C.E. under the leadership of Spartacus?
         * Why did this slave revolt fail?
 

Terms:

 

 
  Assignment #5
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. Identify the members of the First Triumvirate.
  2. How did Julius Caesar take power in Rome?
  3. What were some of Caesar's reforms?
  4. Why did Caesar's rivals feel they had to kill him?
  5. Who were the members of the Second Triumvirate?  Why was it necessary?
  6. Do the reading and answer these questions:
         * According to the information in this document, why was Augustus Caesar a
           successful leader/ruler?
         * In light of his account, why was he able to come to power?
         * What was Augustus' appeal to the Roman Senate and to the Roman people?
         * How does Augustus' rise to power compare with that of Julius Caesar?  What
           are the similarities?
         * Both Augustus and Julius Caesar obtained their positions during times of
           political strife and uncertainty.  What does this fact indicate about Roman society?
  7. In summary, why were the Romans willing to sacrifice their Republican form of government and grant absolute power to one leader?
 

Terms:

 

 

  Assignment #6
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. What was the Pax Romana?  How did Augustus help bring it about?
  2. Do reading #1 and answer these questions:
         * Identify the elements of Augustus' reform program.
         * Were the successors to Augustus good for Rome?  Explain your position.
         * How did the "bread and circuses" program work in Rome?  How successful
           was it?
         * What were some of the troubling signs found during the early Roman imperial
           period that could weaken it over time? 
  3. Do reading #2 and answer these questions:
         *
    How did Roman culture spread throughout the provinces during this time?
         * Why was the Age of Augustus known as the Golden Age of Roman literature?
         * What did the Roman poet Vergil have in common with the Greek poet, Homer?
         * What were some of the key Roman virtues expressed in Vergil's epic poem,
           The Aeneid?
         * Why was Aeneas labeled a Stoic?
         * What were the major themes emphasized by the Roman poets Horace and Ovid?

     
 

Terms:

 

  Assignment #7
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. How did the Romans feel toward the many different religions found within their empire?
  2. What are the basic principles of Christianity as expressed by Jesus in his "Sermon on the Mount?"
  3. Why do you think the Roman leaders saw Christianity as a threat to the empire?
  4. How did conditions in the Roman Empire contribute to the spread of Christianity?
  5. Why did Pliny write to the Emperor Trajan?
  6. Why does Pliny use capital punishment in dealing with admitted Christians?
  7. How did Trajan react to Pliny's methods of dealing with the Christians?  What rules does he believe should be followed?
  8. What does Trajan's response indicate about the important of the rule of law in Roman government?
  9. How is the treatment of Christians in document 3 different from the way Pliny described his dealing with Christians?
  10. Does the punishment fit the "crime," or was this treatment to harsh and brutal?
  11. Why do you think that Christianity spread so quickly throughout the Roman Empire?  What was its "appeal?"
  12. What role did St. Paul play in expanding Christianity?
  13. How did Christianity become the official religion of the Roman Empire?
 

Terms:

 

 

  Assignment #8
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. Why does the author of document #1 feel that being included in the Roman Empire is a privilege?  Why does he hope that the empire "flourish forever?"
  2. How does the information found in document #2 contradict the Roman official's opinion presented in the previous document?
  3. Did the Romans treat the inhabitants of Jerusalem in a just way?  Why or why not?
  4. How does the author of document #3 feel about the overall affects of the Roman Empire on those they conquered?  Would he agree with the author of the first document?  Explain your position.
  5. Why does the author of document #3 praise Cicero?
  6. Which of the above opinions do you think historian Edward Gibbon [document #4] would have agreed with?
  7. Did the Roman Empire benefit or harm those that they conquered?  Use the documents in this packet to support your answer.

 

 

  Assignment #9
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. What were some of the causes of the weakening of the Roman economy in the 3c C.E.?
  2. Why did the Roman government begin recruiting foreign mercenaries in the 3c?  What were the effects of this recruitment on Rome?  on the mercenaries?
  3. Why was loyalty to Rome and the pride of its citizens in the Empire declining by the 3c?
  4. How did the Emperor Diocletian attempt to reform Rome?  How successful was he?
  5. What attraction did the city of Byzantium have over Rome by the early 4c?
 

Terms:

 

 

  Assignment #10
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. In what ways did the culture of the Huns differ from that of the Romans?
  2. How did the way of life of the Huns give them an advantage against Rome?  How was it a disadvantage?
  3. Why did the "barbarians" move into the Roman Empire?
  4. What routes did these invaders take?
  5. How were they treated by the Romans when they began moving into the Empire?
  6. Why was Attila so feared?
  7. Why were the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire initially untouched by barbarian invasions in the 4c and 5c C.E.?
 

Terms:

 

  Assignment #11
 

Sources:

 

Questions/
Activities:
 

  1. Read the document packet, and in small groups, work on the answers to the document questions.
  2. Work in groups of three to create a special edition of a newspaper on the collapse of the Roman Empire.  Follow the instructions given on the project assignment sheet.
 

 

                        

 

 
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