• Textbook --> pp. 438 - 445.
  1. What was the ethnic profile of the immigrants who came to the U. S. between the 1850s and early 1880s?   between the 1880s and the early 1920s?
  2. How did they differ from the early 19c immigrants?  What things did they all have in common?
  3. How did the passage of the 1902 National Reclamation Act [Newland Act] encourage immigration, especially to the American Southwest?
  4. What were the steps in the process that immigrants had to go through at Ellis Island in order to legally enter the U. S.?
  5. What were the legal requirements for entry into the U. S. at the end of the 19c?
  6. How were the procedures for legal entry into the U. S. different at Angel Island for Asian immigrants than from Ellis Island for European immigrants?
  7. How did immigrants cope with culture shock as they began their new lives in the U. S.?
  8. What is a W. A. S. P.?  Who did they consider to be the "right" immigrants?   Who were the "wrong" ones in their opinion?  Why?
  9. What were some of the reasons for anti-immigrant feelings in the U. S. at the end of the 19c?
  10. Why did Asians receive such harsh treatment in California at the turn of the last century?
  11. Why were the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) and the Gentleman's Agreement (1907-8) passed?
   *  "birds of passage"    *  nativism
   *  National Reclamation Act
   *  American Protective
   *  steerage class    *  W. A. S. P.
   *  Ellis Island, NY    *  queue
   *  Angel Island, CA    *  Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
   *  "Melting Pot"    *  Gentleman's Agreement


  • Textbook --> pp. 446 -451.
  1. What were the general characteristics of immigrant neighborhoods in the U. S. at the turn of the last century?
  2. How was the experience of moving to cities similar and different have African-American farm workers and other farm workers?
  3. What were some of the housing problems that urban working-class families had to face?
  4. How did conditions in late 19c U. S. cities affect peoples' health?
  5. Why was fire a constant danger in the late 19c U. S. city?
  6. Which of the problems facing late 19c city dwellers remain urban problems today?
  7. What was the Social Gospel movement?  How was it applied to deal with the urban problems of the late 19c U. S. cities?
  8. What were the motives of the reformers of the settlement-house movement?  What types of reforms did they support?
  9. How did the settlement-house movement help the urban poor meet the challenges of late 19c city life?
  10. Complete exercise #2 on pg. 451 of your textbook.
   *  ethnic enclave    *  Social Gospel
   *  "Great Migration"    *  settlement house
   *  row houses    *  Jane Addams
   *  dumbbell tenement    *  Hull House
   *  cable car    *  Lillian D. Wald
   *  the "El"    *  Henry Street Settlement House
   *  Great Chicago Fire (1871)


  • Textbook --> pp. 452 - 454.
  1. Create a HIERARCHICAL CHART showing the make-up of a political machine in an urban city at the end of the 19c.
  2. What was the role of the late 19c political party boss?
  3. Why did immigrants support these political machines?
  4. What were the advantages and disadvantages of political machines?
  5. How were politicians like Boss Tweed similar to industrial moguls like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller?
   *  George Washington Plunkitt    *  "Big Jim" Prendergast
   *  political machine    *  graft
   *  political precinct    *  kickback
   *  ward    *  Tammany Hall
   *  party boss    *  Tweed Ring
   *  Roscoe Conkling    *  Thomas Nast


  • Textbook --> pp. 455 - 457.
  1. Why was the period of the late 1870s to the early 20c called the "Gilded Age?"
  2. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the patronage (spoils) system as a means of selecting officials for the federal bureaucracy?
  3. Why did the Republicans include Chester A. Arthur as their vice-presidential candidate in the 1880 election?
  4. What were the provisions of the Pendleton Act (1883)?  List the positive and negative effects of this law on the quality of government employees hired at the turn of the last century.
  5. Explain the protective tariff as an issue reflecting regional as well as agrarian-industrial divisions at the turn of the last century.
  6. Why do you think tariff reform failed in the 1890s?
  7. If you had been running for Congress in 1892 from New York State, would you have supported a reduction in tariffs?  Explain your position.
   *  "Gilded Age"    *  Charles Guiteau
   *  La Belle Epoche    *  Chester A. Arthur
   *  patronage    *  Pendleton Act (1883)
   *  civil service    *  Grover Cleveland
   *  Rutherford B. Hayes    *  Ma, Ma, Where's my Pa?...
           He's going to the White
           House, Ha! Ha! Ha!
   *  Stalwarts    *  Benjamin Harrison
   *  Mugwumps    *  McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
   *  Half-Breeds    *  Wilson-Gorman Tariff (1894)
   *  James A. Garfield

e-mailbig.gif (11163 bytes)