• Textbook --> pp. 410 - 415.
  1. What three major factors did the United States have going for it that generated the great technological boom of the late 19c to early 20c?
  2. How did the availability of many key raw materials influence late 19c industrialization?
  3. Why did steel change the face of the nation at the turn of the last century?
  4. Why was Thomas A. Edison nicknamed the "Wizard of Menlo Park?"
  5. How did electricity transform American life?
  6. Why was their such an explosion of inventions and patents in the late 19c?
  7. How did all of these new inventions affect the nation's workers?  American business?  Everyday life in late 19c America?
   *  "black gold"    *  Thomas Alva Edison
   *  Edwin L. Drake    *  George Westinghouse
   *  Titusville, PA    *  Christopher Sholes
   *  Bessemer process    *  Alexander Graham Bell
   *  Brooklyn Bridge    *  Mr. Watson, come here!  I need
   *  William Le Baron Jenney


  • Textbook --> pp. 416 - 420.
  • CD --> songs about the railroads.
  1. Most laborers employed by the railroad companies came from what ethnic groups?  What were their working conditions like?
  2. What were the pros and cons of railroad expansion in the last half of the 19c?
  3. Professor C. F. Dowd resolved what major transportation problem for the railroads?
  4. How was the development of industry affected by the railroads?
  5. Why did the residents of the Pullman company town resent the Pullman Car Company?
  6. How did railroad owners use the Crédit Mobilier Company to make huge, undeserved profits?
  7. What were the Grange Laws?  How did the railroads fight back and challenge these laws?
  8. How did the Supreme Court ruling of Munn v. IL (1887) create an important legal precedent regarding the relationship between the federal government and private business?
  9. What legal principle was reestablished by the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act?
   *  "Iron Horse"    *  Granger Laws
   *  Professor C. F. Dowd    *  Munn v. IL (1887)
   *  economic interdependence    *  Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
   *  Chicago stockyards    *  Interstate Commerce
           Commission [ICC]
   *  George M. Pullman    *  Cornelius Vanderbilt
   *  company town    *  J. P. Morgan & Co.
   *  Crédit Mobilier    


  • Textbook --> pp. 421 - 425.
  • Excerpts from Andrew Carnegie's "The Gospel of Wealth."
  1. What were Andrew Carnegie's management techniques?
  2. Define the terms vertical integration and horizontal integration and explain the distinctions between the two.
  3. What is the origin of the philosophy of Social Darwinism?  How did it affect late 19c economic and political policies?
  4. Who was Horatio Alger?  What were the main themes of his writing?
  5. How was Andrew Carnegie's life a symbol of the American success story?
  6. What strategies enabled big business to eliminate competition?
  7. How did John D. Rockefeller take a different approach to business consolidation from the approach taken by Andrew Carnegie?
  8. Explain the ideal of the "Gospel of Wealth."  How was it applied by the "robber barons" of the late 19c?
  9. Could Bill Gates of Microsoft be considered a 21c "robber baron?"  Defend your position.
  10. What was the key flaw in the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890?
  11. How did economic factors limit industrialization in the post-Reconstruction South?
   *  Andrew Carnegie    *  monopoly
   *  mogul    *  holding company
   *  U. S. Steel    *  John D. Rockefeller
   *  vertical integration    *  trust
   *  horizontal integration    *  "robber baron"
   *  Social Darwinism    *  Standard Oil Co. of Ohio
   *  Herbert Spencer    *  philanthropy
   *  William Graham Sumner    *  Gospel of Wealth
   *  Horatio Alger    *  Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
   *  oligopoly    *  Ida Tarbell


  • Textbook --> pp. 426 - 433.
  1. What were some of the major industrial working conditions that were so abhorrent to laborers at the end of the 19c?
  2. How did these horrible working conditions contribute to the growth of the labor movement?
  3. Create a CHART that identifies the Knights of Labor, the AF of L, and the I. W. W. as three major national labor unions which emerged in the U. S. during the late 19c.  Compare and contrast these unions in terms of membership, policy, and levels of success.
  4. How did craft unionism and trade unionism differ?
  5. What was a major effect of the Haymarket Riot of 1886?
  6. Describe the events surrounding the Homestead (1892) and Pullman (1894) strikes.  How did these events reflect the challenges faced by labor unions at the turn of the last century?
  7. What were some of the "tools" that management used to prevent labor from organizing or to stop the effectiveness of existing labor unions?
  8. What tactics did women labor organizers use to achieve labor reforms?
  9. How was the Sherman Antitrust Act used against labor rather than in the way Congress had originally intended it to be used?
  10. Why did labor union membership begin to decline in the late 1890s?
   *  Jacob Riis    *  socialism
   *  How the Other Half Lived    *  Eugene V. Debs
   *  Uriah Stephens    *  communism
   *  Knights of Labor    *  Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
   *  An injury to one is the concern
           of all!
   *  International Workers of the
             World  (I. W. W.)
   *  Terence V. Powderly    *  "Wobblies"
   *  Samuel Gompers    *  William "Big Bill" Haywood
   *  American Federation of Labor
   *  Great Railroad Strike of 1877
   *  collective bargaining    *  Haymarket Riot (1886)
   *  closed shop    *  Homestead Strike (1892)
   *  open shop    *  Pinkertons
   *  agency shop    *  Pullman Strike (1894)
   *  boycott    *  arbitration
   *  black-listing    *  In Re Debs (1895)
   *  injunction    *  anarchist
   *  "yellow-dog" contract    *  Mary Harris "Mother" Jones
   *  scab    *  Pauline Newman
   *  International ladies' Garment
            Workers Union (ILGWU)
   *  Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
   *  "Uprising of the 20,000"    *  "restraint of trade"



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