• Textbook --> pp. 380 - 387.
  1. How did the horse and the buffalo influence Native American life on the Great Plains?
  2. How did the views of native Americans and white settlers differ regarding land ownership?
  3. What attractions did the West and the Great Plains have for white settlers and immigrants?
  4. What role did the railroad play in the early opening of the West to white settlement?
  5. Describe how federal policy toward Native American land evolved throughout the later 19c.
  6. List examples of the American use of warfare and violence against Native Americans in an effort to seize their land in the late 19c?
  7. What were the provisions of the Treaty of 1868?  Why was it ineffective?
  8. Why did Lt. Col. Custer's attack fail?  What were the results of "Custer's Last Stand?"
  9. What were the provisions of the Dawes Act of 1887?  What was its impact on individual land ownership in the Native American community?
  10. Describe the involvement of Christian denominations in the effort to "Americanize" Native Americans.
  11. What were the effects of the destruction of the buffalo on the Native American's way of life?
  12. What events led to the Battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota in 1890?
  13. Why do you think that many people proclaimed the frontier closed in 1890?
   *  Great Plains    *  Battle of Little Big Horn, MT
   *  Homestead Act (1862)    *  Winchester '76 rifle
   *  exodusters    *  assimilation
   *  Pacific Railroad Act (1862)    *  Helen Hunt Jackson
   *  Sand Creek Massacre    *  A Century of Dishonor
   *  Bozeman Trail    *  Dawes Act (1887)
   *  Fetterman Massacre    *  Kill the Indian and save the
   *  Crazy Horse    *  William "Buffalo Bill" Cody
   *  Sitting Bull    *  Ghost Dance
   *  Treaty of 1868    *  Chief Joseph
   *  Red River War of 1874-1875    *  Nez Perce
   *  Black Hills    *  Battle of Wounded Knee, SD
   *  Lt. Col. George Armstrong


  • Textbook --> pp. 388 - 395.
  1. What does the American cowboy tradition owe to the Mexican vaquero?
  2. What developments led to the rapid growth of the cattle industry?
  3. Describe the characteristics and functions of the western cow town which emerged in the late 19c.
  4. How did the cowboys' life differ from the myth about it?
  5. Why has the romantic myth of the American cowboy proved to be so enduring?
  6. Why did cattle ranchers and sheepherders not get along?
  7. What events led to the end of the cattle frontier and the wide-opened West?
   *  longhorns    *  Chisholm Trail
   *  vaqueros (buckaroos)    *  Martha Jane Cannary
         ("Calamity Jane")
   *  chaparreras (chaps)    *  James Butler "Wild Bill"
   *  charqui (jerky)    *  long drive
   *  mesteņos (mustangs)    *  chuck wagon
   *  rancho (ranch)    *  wrangler
   *  bandanna    *  range wars
   *  six-shooter    *  Joseph Glidden
   *  Abilene, KS    *  Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show


  • Textbook --> pp. 396 -400.
  • Excerpts from Frederick Jackson Turner's "The Significance of the Frontier in American History."
  1. How did the railroads help open the West?
  2. Why did the Homestead Act of 1862 not work exactly as the federal government had intended it to?
  3. What is Frederick Jackson Turner's historical thesis?  What did he feel to be significant about the Western frontier?
  4. Why did F. J. Turner feel the by 1890, the frontier was gone and the first period of American history had been closed?  What he correct in this assumption?
  5. Describe the adversities faced by western settlers as they established homes on the Great Plains.  Discuss the unique challenges faced by frontier women in the West.
  6. How did new inventions change farming in the West?
  7. What was the purpose of the Morrill Land Grant Acts of 1862 and 1890 and the Hatch Act 
    of 1887?
  8. How did the railroads take advantage of the western farmers?
   *  Promontory, UT    *  soddy
   *  homesteaders    *  Morrill Land Grant Acts 
           (1860, 1890)
   *  Frederick Jackson Turner    *  Hatch Act (1887)
   *  "The Significance of the
            Frontier in American
   *  bonanza farms


  • Textbook --> pp. 401 - 405.
  • Excerpts from the Omaha Platform.
  1. Why did farmers think that an increased money supply would help solve their economic problems?
  2. What were some of the causes of the farmers' economic problems in the late 19c?
  3. What was the purpose of the Bland-Allison Act of 1878?  Was it successful in achieving its purpose?  Explain your answer.
  4. List the efforts made by the Farmers' Alliance to remedy the ills facing farmers in the last half of the 19c.  How successful were these efforts?
  5. How did the Grange and the Farmers' Alliances pave the way for the Populist Party?
  6. Based on the Omaha Convention Platform, what were the main goals and reforms advocated by the Populist Party?
  7. How successful were the populists in achieving their political agenda?
  8. What caused the Panic of 1893?  What was the impact of this depression on America's reform movements and on traditional American ideas regarding laissez faire?
  9. Discuss the importance of gold and silver standards as issues in the presidential election of 1896. [refer to the chart in your textbook on the bottom of pg. 404].
  10. Which groups supported each political candidate in the 1896 presidential election and why?
  11. Identify Mark Hanna and explain his role in the 1896 election.
  12. What was William Jennings Bryan's dilemma in the election of 1896?
  13. Why did the Populist movement eventually collapse?
   *  deflation    *  Omaha Platform
   *  inflation    *  business cycle ("boom" or
   *  "cheap" money    *  Panic of 1893
   *  "dear" money    *  laissez faire
   *  Bland-Allison Act (1878)    *  bimetallism
   *  middleman    *  William McKinley
   *  Grange    *  Mark Hanna
   *  cooperatives    *  "front-porch" campaign
   *  Farmers' Alliance    *  "Gold Bugs"
   *  populism    *  "Silverites"
   *  Populist ("People's") Party    *  Cross of Gold speech
   *  William Jennings Bryan

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