bullet 1840-1960- Trade Unionism (Spartacus)
bullet AFL-CIO Official Web Page
bullet Benjamin Harrison (1) - PBS Series on the American Presidency
bullet Benjamin Harrison (2) - POTUS site
bullet Between a Rock and a Hard Place:  A History of American Sweatshops from 1820 to the Present (Smithsonian Institute)
bullet A Biography of America:  Industrial Supremacy (1875-1906) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet The Bisbee Deportation of 1917
bullet "Boss Tweed and the Tammany Hall Machine" - essay by David Wiles
bullet Business Leaders (Spartacus)
bullet The Campaign to End Child Labor
bullet Cartoons Dealing with the 1902 Anthracite Coal Strike
bullet Chester A. Arthur (1) - PBS Series on the American Presidency
bullet Chester A. Arthur (2) - POTUS site
bullet Chicago Anarchists on Trial - Evidence from the Haymarket Affair, 1886-1887
bullet "Child Labor in America:  1908-1912" - photos by Lewis W. Hine
bullet Coal Mining in the Gilded Age and Progressive Eras
bullet The Crime of 1873
bullet Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement
bullet The Dramas of Haymarket
bullet Eugene V. Debs Foundation
bullet Florence Kelley -- A Woman of Fierce Fidelity
bullet "Frederick Jackson Turner and the 'Gospel of Wealth'" - essay by Joshua Derman (Concord Review)
bullet Grover Cleveland (1) - PBS Series on the American Presidency
bullet Grover Cleveland (2) - POTUS site
bullet History of Andrew Carnegie and the Carnegie Libraries
bullet "How Did Florence Kelley's Campaign against Sweatshops in Chicago in the 1890s Contribute to State Formation?" (19 documents; 3 images)
bullet "In the Shadow of I. W. W." - essay by William LeFevre
bullet The Industrial Revolution & Progressive Era
bullet Inside an American Factory--The Westinghouse Works:  1904 (American Memory - LOC)
bullet Interurban Rail:  Incorporating the Hinterlands at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century
bullet The Inventor's Finest Creation:  Thomas Edison and the Making of a Myth
bullet I. W. W.  Official Web Site
bullet "The I.W.W.--Its History, Structure and Methods" - Vincent St. John
bullet I.W.W. Songs to Fan the Flames of Discontent - Joe Hill
bullet James Garfield (1) - PBS Series on the American Presidency
bullet James Garfield (2) - POTUS site
bullet John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company
bullet Labor History Timeline:  1778-1991
bullet LaborNet's Labor Quotes Page
bullet The Life of Henry Ford
bullet Map-->"American Industry:  1900"
bullet The Molly Maguires
bullet New Ways of Doing Business
bullet New York State AFL-CIO
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet Photographs and text describing:  (1) Workers of Homestead and the conditions that they endured in the workplace ; (2) workers families & their living conditions ;  (3) public life & recreation in Homestead
bullet Pinkerton Detective Agency
bullet Political Cartoons of the Post-Civil War Era
bullet The Pullman Strike:  Chicago, 1894
bullet Pullman Strikes Out as a Model Town
bullet Publications by the Industrial Workers of the World (University of Arizona Library)
bullet Religion and the Founding of America
bullet "Robber Barons" -  essay by J. Bradford DeLong
bullet The Rockefellers (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet Samuel Gompers Papers:  A Documentary History of the American Working Class
bullet The Telephone (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet Trade Unions (Spartacus)
bullet The Triangle Factory Fire:  March 25, 1911
bullet The Vanderbilt Mansion (Hyde Park, NY)
bullet "VegSource and the Meat-Packers" by Jeffrey Armour Nelson
bullet William McKinley (1) - PBS Series on the American Presidency
bullet William McKinley (2) - POTUS site
bullet The Wizard of Photography--The Story of George Eastman (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet Work in the Late 19c - 8 personal accounts
bullet The Work of Charles and Ray Eames:  A Legacy of Invention


                                How to read a primary source document

bullet 1857:  Social Darwinism - Herbert Spencer
bullet 1864-1914:  Index of U.S. Manufacturing Production, 1864-1914 - chart
bullet 1870-1900:  Iron, Steel, and Coal Production 1870-1900 - chart
bullet 187?:  "Labor and wages, as they are affected by a depreciated currency" - leaflet
bullet 1870:  "The labor movement. Mass meeting of working-men at the Mechanics' Pavilion, speeches of General A. M. Winn, Hon. Philip A. Roach, C. C. Terrill, Frank M. Pixley, and others - The Southern Pacific railroad" - pamphlet
bullet 1871:  "Children Who Work" - Scribners Monthly / Volume 1, Issue 6, April 1871
bullet 1872:  "Millions of Acres" - railroad land grant broadside
bullet 1872:  New York City--The Eight-hour Movement--Procession of workingmen on a 'strike,' in the Bowery, June 10th, 1872." - wood engraving based on a sketch by Matthew Morgan, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (6/29)
bullet 1876-1920:  Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876-1920 - chart
bullet 1873:  The Slaughter-House Cases
bullet 1874:  National Labor Reform Platform
bullet 1876:  Greenback Party Platform
bullet 1877:  Munn v. Illinois  
bullet 1877:  "Pennsylvania--The railroad riot in Pittsburgh--The Philadelphia militia firing on the mob" - wood engraving based on a sketch by John Donaghy, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (supplement) - 8/4
bullet 1877:  The Strike of 1877 - Allan Pinkerton
bullet 1878:  Bland-Allison Act (2/28)
bullet 1878:  "The Bland silver bill. To the editor of the Herald." -  New York (1/10) - broadside
bullet 1878:  “Leave Them Alone; That Is the Remedy” - A Manufacturer’s Solution to the Depression
bullet 1878:  "Ode to the Odious" - Phillips Thomson Ridicules Laissez-Faire
bullet 1878:  On the Road Again - Pinkerton on the Tramp
bullet 1878:  “Our Misery and Despair” - Denis Kearney Blasts Chinese Immigration
bullet 1878:  Silver Purchase Act
bullet 1878:  “Store Pay Is Our Ruin”- The Tyranny of the Company Store - Ohio Bureau of Labor Statistics First Annual Report
bullet 1878:  “We ask it; we demand it, and we intend to have it” - Printer Albert R. Parsons Testifies before Congress about the Eight Hour Day
bullet 1878:  The Workingman’s Ten Commandments - Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen’s Monthly Magazine
bullet 1879:  “Poor Little Stephen Girard" - Mark Twain Lampoons the Horatio Alger Myth
bullet 1879:  Proceedings of the Thirteenth Session of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
bullet 1879:  Progress and Poverty - Henry George
bullet 1880:  Acceptance of the Greenback-Labor Party Nomination - James B. Weaver
bullet 1880:  Greenback-Labor Party Platform
bullet 1880s:  “In the Beginning . . .” - A Knight of Labor's Sacred Oath
bullet 1881:  "American federation of labor endeavors to unite all classes of wage-workers under one head, through their several organizations to the end. 1 That class, race, creed, political and trade prejudices may be abolished. 2. That support, moral and financial, may be given to each other ... Washington, D. C." - broadside     (image)
bullet 1881:  Preamble to the Constitution of the Knights of Labor
bullet 1881:  The Story of a Great Monopoly - H. D. Lloyd (March)
bullet 1881-1911:  A. F. of L. membership chart (at the bottom of the page)
bullet 1882:  "The Factory System as an Element in Civilization" - from Carroll D. Wright. Journal of Social Science. 16:1 (1882). 101-126
bullet 1883:  Pendleton Act
bullet 1883:  “Pure and Simple” - Making the Case for Unionism
bullet 1883:  “The Rich Are Good-Natured” - William Graham Sumner Defends the Wealthy
bullet 1883:  Walt Whitman Salutes the Indo-Hispanic Conrtibution to America
bullet 1884:  Equal Rights Party Platform
bullet 1884:  Greenback Party Platform
bullet 1884:  “‘The Issue of Protection to American Labor.’—Blaine” - political cartoon in Harper's Weekly (9/20)
bullet 1884:  "The Lords of Industry" - Henry Demarest Lloyd in North American Review CCCXXXI (June)
bullet 1884:  “Selfish wealth is never good” - A Worker’s Definition of Success
bullet 1884:  Six Families Budget Their Money - Illinois Bureau of Labor Statistics
bullet 1884:  "The Working Girls of Boston" - Fifteenth Annual Report of the Massachusetts Bureau of Labor Statistics
bullet 1885:  Lecture to Young Men - Andrew Carnegie
bullet 1885:  "Pullman: A Social Study" - article by Richard T. Ely in Harper's Magazine 70 (Feb.)
bullet 1885:  “Rock Springs is Killed” - White Reaction to the Rock Springs Riot
bullet 1885:  “To This We Dissented” - The Rock Springs Riot
bullet 1886:  August Spies Defends the Eight-Hour Movement
bullet 1886:  “The Bad News From Chicago” - Labor Organizer Oscar Ameringer Describes the Effect of the Haymarket Bombing on the Knights of Labor (as recalled in 1940)
bullet 1886:  Condemned Haymarket Anarchist - address by George Engel
bullet 1886:  “A Healthy Public Opinion” - Terence V. Powderly Distances the Knights of Labor from the Haymarket Martyrs (as recalled in 1890)
bullet 1886:  Black Comedy - Racial Controversy at the Richmond Convention
bullet 1886:  Knight Errant - Drawing the Line on Black-White Equality
bullet 1886:  Knights of Labor Song
bullet 1886:  Race and Racism at the 1886 Knights of Labor Convention
bullet 1886:   "The Rise and Fall of Anarchy …" - George N. McLean
bullet 1887:  Advice on Working and Saving
bullet 1887:  Interstate Commerce Act
bullet 1887:  Introducing New Recruits to “Labor’s Catechism”
bullet 1887:  “Making Common Cause” - The Knights’ Assembly Hall
bullet 1888:  Equal Rights Party Platform
bullet 1888:  Looking Backward - Edward Bellamy (excerpt)
bullet 1888:  Prohibition Party Platform
bullet 1888:  "Demonetization of Silver: by Sarah E.V. Emery in Seven Financial Conspiracies Which Have Enslaved the American People

1888:  Union Labor Party Platform


1889:  Altared States - Marriage Ends a Knights of Labor Organizer’s Career

bullet 1889:  The Gospel of Wealth - Andrew Carnegie
bullet 1889:  Home Sweet Home - Building and Loan Associations Lend a Hand
bullet 1889:  Divided We Conquer - A White Plantation Owner Undermines the Knights of Labor
bullet 1880s:  “The Baby Was Made ‘Delegate No. 800’” - Frances Willard Meets Elizabeth Rodgers in the 1880s
bullet late 1880s:  “The Greatest Tyrant in the State of Pennsylvania”- A Late Nineteenth-Century Rail Worker Describes Management
bullet 1890:  "The Message of Jesus to Men of Wealth" - address delivered by George D. Herron (9/22)
bullet 1890:  Sherman Anti-Trust Act (7/2)
bullet 1890-1926:  Chart on Consumerism Statistics
bullet 1891:  Digging for Answers - A Black Miner Ponders Racism
bullet 1891:  "On the Condition of the Working Classes" - from the encyclical letter [Rerum Novarum] of His Holiness Pope Leo XIII (5/15)
bullet 1892:  A Call To Action by James B. Weaver
bullet 1892:  Henry Frick Makes His Case
bullet 1892:  "The Homestead Strike" - song lyrics
bullet 1892:  Homestead Strike documents
bullet 1892:  “I Will Kill Frick”- Emma Goldman Recounts the Attempt to Assassinate the Chairman of the Carnegie Steel Company During the- Homestead Strike in 1892 (as recalled in 1930)
bullet 1892:  "The Incident of the 6th of July" [Homestead Strike] - Illustrated American (7/16)
bullet 1892:  "The Military Versus Labor" - Illustrated American (7/30)
bullet 1892:  Selections from "Organized Labor in the Campaign," North American Review, CLV (July) by Samuel Gompers
bullet 1892:  "The Situation at Homestead" - Illustrated American (7/23)
bullet 1892:  The Socialist Labor Party Platform
bullet 1892:  Spies for Hire - Advertising by the Pinkerton Agency
bullet 1892:  Swinton’s Silver Lining - Taking Comfort in the 1892 Strikes
bullet 1892:  Telling Secrets Out of School - Charles Siringo on the Pinkertons
bullet 1892:  Various Documents on the Homestead Strike      (additional documents)
bullet 1893:  “Certain Fundamental Truths” - The AFL Protests Unemployment
bullet 1893:  “If A Diogenes Prefers Poverty” - Lewelling Defends the Rights of the Unemployed
bullet 1893:  Pardon Message by Gov. John Peter Altgeld of the Haymarket anarchists (6/26)
bullet 1893:  Friends in High Places - A Pro-Labor Governor, Davis Waite (CO), Speaks Out
bullet 1893:  Suit by the United States Against the Workingman's Amalgamated Council of New Orleans
bullet 1893:  What’s Good for the Goose. . . - Labor and the Theory of Evolution
bullet 1894:  Address to 1894 Convention of American Railway Union - Jennie Curtis, President of ARU Local 269, the "Girls" Local Union
bullet 1894:  Are Sleeping Cars Protected by the Constitution - Mr. Dooley on the Pullman Strike
bullet 1894:  Eugene Debs addresses the American Railway Union
bullet 1894:  Father Knows Best - Strikers Denounce Pullman
bullet 1894:  “For the Further Benefit of Our People” - George Pullman Answers His Strikers
bullet 1894:  "The Great Railroad Strike of 1894" - part 13 from the autobiography of Frank A. Leach
bullet 1894:  "Homestead and its Perilous Trades--Impressions of a Visit" - Hamlin Garland in McClure's Magazine (June)
bullet 1894:  "In the Depths of a Coal Mine" - Stephen Crane in McClure's Magazine (Aug.)
bullet 1894:  Letters on the Pullman Strike
bullet 1894:  "The Overthrow of the Molly Maguires"--Stories from the Archives of the Pinkerton Detective Agency - Cleveland Moffett in McClure's Magazine (pp. 90-100)
bullet 1894:  Various Documents on the Pullman Strike      (additional documents)
bullet 1894:  Wealth Against the Commonwealth - Henry Demarest Lloyd
bullet 1895:  A Pledge of Allegiance - Joining the Grange
bullet 1895:  In re Debs
bullet 1895:  Plate, Punch Card, and Instructions for Herman Hollerith's Electric Sorting and Tabulating Machine
bullet 1895:  United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
bullet 1896:  A Call to Arms - George McNeill’s Unshakable Faith in Labor’s Future
bullet 1896:  Samuel Gompers, President, American Federation of Labor, Indianapolis, “To Affiliated Unions,” 27 June 1896, National Labor Standard (July)
bullet 1896:  "The Problem of the West" - Frederick Jackson Turner in Atlantic Monthly (Sept.)
bullet 1896:  The Science of Railways: Organization and Forces - Marshall Kirkman
bullet 1897:  “The Business of a Factory” - Philip G. Hubert, Jr., Scribner’s (Jan.-June)
bullet 1897:  Was Christ a Union Man
bullet 1897-1920:  Labor Union Membership, 1897-1920 - chart
bullet 1898:  "George Rice Loses Out to Standard Oil" - New York World  (10/16)
bullet 1898:  White Women Protest the Hiring of Black “Wage-Slaves”
bullet 1899:  "The Battery of Imperialism" - political cartoon by Horace Taylor in The Verdict (9/25)
bullet 1899:  “The Brotherhood of Man” - A Unionist Uses the Bible
bullet 1899:  "How to crush monopoly! The remedy for trusts. Hon. M. L. Lockwood of Zelienopole, Pa., President of the American anti-trust league, declares for public ownership of railways in his address before the industrial commission" - broadside
bullet 1899:  John D. Rockefeller on Industrial Combinations
bullet 1899:  "The Trust Giant's Point of View - What a Funny Little Government" - political cartoon by Horace Taylor in The Verdict (9/25)
bullet 1899:  "Uncle Sam Walks the Plank" - political cartoon about trusts in The Verdict (5/22)
bullet 1890s:  “The Poisonous Occupations in Illinois”- Physician Alice Hamilton Explores the “Dangerous Trades” at the Turn of the Century (as recalled in 1943)
bullet early 20c:  "The Ludlow Massacre"  (1914) - song lyrics by Woody Guthrie
bullet early 20c:  T-Bone Slim Pens “The Lumberjack’s Prayer”
bullet early 20c:  "The Uprising of the Twenty Thousands" - song dedicated to the Waistmakers of 1909
bullet 1900:  “In the Sight of God”- Woes of a Miner’s Wife - Ettie West (Voorhees, Indiana) to the editor, The United Mine Workers Journal (3/8)
bullet 1900:  Letter from Wilbur Wright to Octave Chanute concerning the Wright brothers' aviation experiments (5/13)
bullet 1900:  "On Strike!" - Earl W. Mayo (about the Anthracite Coal Strike) from Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly (Nov.)
bullet 1900:  "The Outlook for Socialism in the United States" - Eugene V. Debs
bullet 1900-1:  "The Changing Character of Immigration" - Kate Holladay Claghorn from World's Work, Vol. 1, 1900-01
bullet 1901:  Pauline Neuman's Letter Describing Working Conditions at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
bullet 1902:  "A Hint from a Slave Driver" - political cartoon on the coal strike in the Chicago News
bullet 1902:  "Americans in the Raw:  The high-tide of immigrants—their strange possessions and their meager wealth—what becomes of them" - Edward Lowry from The World's Work, 1902

1902:  "The Coal Strike Hearings" - Miners Testify as to the Hardships of Their Employment, Etc. - from Public Opinion (12/18)


1902:  "The Coal Strike Settlement - a Commision Proposed by the Operators and Accepted by the Miners - from Public Opinion (10/23)


1902:  “Oh God, For One More Breath” - Early 20th century Tennessee Coal Miners’ Last Words

bullet 1902:  "Try This Road" - political cartoon on the coal strike in the New York Herald
bullet 1902:  "Well done, Mr. President" - political cartoon on the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
bullet 1902:  "The Washington School Master" - political cartoon in the Chicago Chronicle on the coal strike
bullet 1902-4?:  Union-Busting at Cripple Creek - yellow-dog contract
bullet 1902-14:  Songs for the Working Children - Poems for the Campaign to End Child Labor
bullet 1903-13:  Child Labor Cartoons
bullet 1903:  A Craft Unionist Rewrites the Ten Commandments - G. Edmonston, the first President of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. The Florida Labor Journal (May)
bullet 1903:  “A Foretaste of the Orient” - John Murray, International Socialist Review (August)
bullet 1903:  "How to Succeed in Life" - Andrew Carnegie
bullet 1903:  Thugs for Hire - Ads for Security Guards
bullet 1904:  Eugene V. Debs Speaks During the 1904 Presidential Campaign (sound file)
bullet 1904:  Gompers Calls for Action Over Cripple Creek
bullet 1904:  The History of the Standard Oil Company - Ida M. Tarbell (full text)
bullet 1904:  Ideas in Conflict - Opposing Views of the Cripple Creek Strike
bullet 1904:  Northern Securities Company v. U. S.
bullet 1904:  Playing for the Press- Strike Coverage by the Media
bullet 1905:  "Chicago's Strike Ordeal" - Stanley Powers (The World's Work, Vol. 10)
bullet 1905?:  I. W. W. poster
bullet 1905:  Lochner v. U. S.
bullet 1905:  Preamble to the Constitution of the International Workers of the World
bullet 1906:  The Jungle - Upton Sinclair (full text)
bullet 1908:  Children in the Cotton Mills (photos)
bullet 1908:  Muller v. Oregon
bullet 1909:  "The Uprising of the Twenty Thousand" - song lyrics (dedicated to the Waistmakers of 1909)
bullet 1910:  "Don't Go Down in the Mine, Dad" - song lyrics
bullet 1910:  Homestead: The Households of a Mill Town - Margaret F. Byington   (more excerpts)
bullet 1910s:  “Harvest Land” - A Lyrical Critique of John Farmer
bullet 1911:  "The General Strike" - pamphlet by Bill Haywood of the I. W. W.
bullet 1911:  Plugging the Leaks - A Specialist Spies on Union Activities
bullet 1911:  The Principles of Scientific Management - Frederick W. Taylor
bullet 1911:  "The Trusts, the People, and the Square Deal" - editorial by Theodore Roosevelt from The Outlook (11/18)
bullet 1911:  Working for the Triangle Shirtwaist Company
bullet 1912:  "Bread and Roses" - song lyrics by James Oppenheim describing the "Bread and Roses" strike
bullet 1912:  Camella Teoli Testifies about the 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike
bullet 1912:  “The Experiences Of A Hired Girl,” [author unknown],The Outlook (4/6)
bullet 1913:  "Lawrence Strikers" - Harper's Weekly (2/10) - photo
bullet 1913:  “The Pageant as a Form of Propaganda” - Reviews of the Paterson Strike Pageant
bullet 1913:  The Paterson Strike Pageant Program
bullet 1914:  American Labor Unions, By a Member - Helen Marot
bullet 1914:  A Brief for the Palmer-Owen Child Labor Bill
bullet 1914:  Clayton Anti-Trust Act
bullet 1914:  The Ludlow Massacre - Walter H. Fink
bullet 1914:  “I Started Filling Rifles”- A Woman Strike Supporter Remembers the 1914 Ludlow Massacre (recalled in 1974)
bullet 1914:  “I Was Not Wanted Any Longer” - A Retail Worker Joins the Union in 1914 and Gets Fired
bullet 1914:  Letter to Samuel Gompers from Josephine Casey concerning women labor organizers
bullet 1914:  One Strike Against Her - A Store Clerk Dares to Join the Union
bullet 1914:  "The Story of My Cotton Dress" - The Child Labor Bulletin (Aug.)
bullet 1915:  “Eight Hours in the Forenoon, Eight Hours in the Afternoon”- An IWW Organizer Describes the Horrors of Rural Work
bullet 1915:  In the Hot Seat - Rockefeller Testifies on Ludlow
bullet 1915:  The People Versus the Private Army
bullet 1915:  "The Rebel Girl" - labor song written for Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
bullet 1915:  A Separate Peace - Alice Henry on Women and Unions
bullet 1915:  "Solidarity Forever" - union song lyrics by Ralph Chaplin
bullet 1915:  "Union Shop vs. Non-Union Shop" - testimony by Clarence Darrow before the U.S. Senate's Commission on Industrial Relations
bullet 1916:  Final Report and Testimony Submitted to Congress by the Commission on Industrial Relations, 64th Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 415, 2 - Samuel Gompers
bullet 1916:  Scott Nearing offered a disheartening prognosis for the social mobility of wage workers (8/16)
bullet 1917:  Pride and Joy - Specialists in Breaking Strikes
bullet 1919:  Two Views of the 1919 Steel Strike - (1)  and  (2)
bullet 1925:  The Autobiography of Mother Jones - published by Charles Kerr