• textbook --> pp. 458 - 466.
  • doc. reader --> pp. 16 - 19.
  • atlas --> pp. 36
Terms :
* pluralism * mysticism
* indulgence * nepotism
* Martin Luther   (pic1) * Fuggers
* 95 Theses * Johann Tetzel
* transubstantiation * Edict of Worms
* consubstantiation * Charles V   (pic1)
  1. From your summer reading, make a list of events, writers, and church reformers from the 14c-15c who foreshadowed the Protestant Reformation of the 16c.
  2. What were the sources of discontent among the Catholic clergy and the manifestations of popular religious piety on the eve of the Reformation?
  3. Identify Luther's key question/problem which he grappled with throughout his life.  How did he finally solve it?
  4. What is an indulgence?  How did it become a major reform issue by the late 15c?
  5. What was Luther's core theological premise?  Make a list of his major ideas.
  6. How did the church initially react to the printing and dissemination of Luther's 95 Theses in Wittenberg?  Why did they have such a strong appeal in Germany?
  7. What were the religious and political implications of Luther's reforms?
  8. Why did the Holy Roman Empire, Charles V, in collaboration with the Pope, issue the Edict of Worms in 1521?  What were the implications of this move?
  9. Why did many German political authorities [especially the nobility] support Luther's cause?  Why was their support so essential to his success?
  10. Why did the decentralized political structure of the Holy Roman Empire and traditions of popular participation in urban government aid the movement for reform in the 16c?
  11. What were the causes of the Peasants' Revolt of 1525-1526?  What was Luther's position in this upheaval?  
  12. [Read the document on pg. 465] -- Why was Luther so harsh on the peasants?

                          ASSIGNMENT 2:

  • textbook --> pp. 466 - top of pg. 475.
Terms :
* Habsburg-Valois Wars * cantons
* Suleiman the Magnificent * Anabaptists
* Schmalkaldic League * John of Leyden
* Peace of Augsburg [1555] * millenarianism
* cuius regio, eius religio * Mennonites
* Ulrich Zwingli  (pic1) * Amish
* Swiss Confederation  
  1. Where was Lutheranism most successful in the 16c?
  2. What role did the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, play in the Protestant Reformation?
  3. What were the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555?  How was it a religious compromise?  What issues were left unresolved?
  4. Identify the main religious beliefs of Ulrich Zwingli.  How were they similar to Luther's beliefs?  How were they different?
  5. What were the basic beliefs of the Anabaptists?  Why do you think that they were labeled the "radicals" of the Protestant Reformation movement?

                         ASSIGNMENT 3:

Terms :
* John Calvin  (pic1) * Consistory
* Institutes of the Christian 
* John Knox 
* predestination * gymnasium
* the elect * Strasbourg school
* the reprobate * Geneva Academy
* presbyters * theocracy
* Ecclesiastical Ordinances
  1. List the major beliefs of John Calvin.  How were they similar to Luther's beliefs?  How were they different?
  2. What was life like in Calvin's Geneva under his Ecclesiastical Ordinances?
  3. To where did Calvinism spread throughout the 16c?
  4. What impact did Reformation doctrines have on the family, education, and popular religious practices?
  5. How did the role of women in some Protestant churches change in the 16c?  Why did their social and religious positions remain the same in most others?
  6. According to most Reformation thinkers, what was the most important role of a woman in the Christian household?
  7. What problems resulted when the men of this time period still viewed a woman as both Mary and/or Eve?

                          ASSIGNMENT 4:

  • textbook --> pp. 475 - 477.
  • chart --> "Genealogy Chart of the English Monarchs:  15c to the Early 19c".
  • slides --> paintings of the key figures in Henry VIII's court and royal family.
  • reading --> Act of Supremacy (1536).
  • reading --> Ten Articles (1536).
Terms :
* Tudor family * Book of Common Prayer
* Henry VIII  (pic1) * Elizabeth I   (pics)
* "Defender of the Faith" * Sir Thomas More  (pic1)
* Catherine of Aragon (pic1) (pic2) * Thomas Cranmer  (pic1)
* Anne Boleyn  (pic1) * Thomas Cromwell
* Mary I  (pic1) * Mary Stuart of Scotland
* Edward VI  (pic1) (pic2)
  1. How did Henry VIII's marital difficulties lead to a break with Rome and the creation of an independent Church of England?
  2. What did Henry VIII do to the property of the Catholic Church once he was excommunicated by the Pope?
  3. Who much of Catholicism was retained during Henry VIII's reign?
  4. When and how did the Church of England become more Protestant?
  5. How did the British Parliament legalize the creation of an independent Church of England in the mid-1530s?
  6. Why did Henry VIII's break with Rome have so much support from the English people?
  7. How did Mary I attempt to restore Catholicism in England?  Why did she fail?

                         ASSIGNMENT 5:

Terms :
* St. Theresa of Avila (pic1) * St. Ignatius Loyola  (pic1)
* Capuchins * Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
* Ursulines * St. Francis Xavier 
* Counter-Reformation * Inquisition
* Index of Prohibited Books * Pope Paul IV
* Pope Paul III * Council of Trent
  1. What were the differences in interpretation of the two terms--Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation?
  2. List some of the new religious orders created during this period and briefly identify the religious mission of each.
  3. How did Ignatius Loyola organize the Jesuit order?  What was its purpose?
  4. [refer to the document on pg. 485] -- What were the fundamental assumptions that underlies Loyola's rule for "thinking with the Church"?
  5. Why was the Jesuit order so fit to serve the Catholic Counter-Reformation?
  6. What were the accomplishments of Pope Paul III?  of Pope Paul IV?  How did they differ in their approach to church reform?
  7. What were the primary goals of the Council of Trent?
  8. List the major positions taken by the Council of Trent on dogma and church reform.
  9. What was the condition of the papacy as it emerged after the Council of Trent?
  10. What is the origin of the word "baroque"?
  11. What was the goal of Baroque art?  What were the characteristics of the Baroque style?
  12. How was the Baroque movement a reflection of the Counter-Reformation?