Assignment #1




  1. What is an indulgence?  How did it become a major reform issue by the late 15c?
  2. What aspects of Luther's personality and experience contributed to his reforming zeal?
  3. What was Luther's core theological premise?  Make a list of his major ideas.
  4. How did the church initially react to the printing and dissemination of Luther's 95 Theses in Wittenberg?  Why did they have such a strong appeal in Germany?
  5. Luther and Erasmus both attacked what they saw as abuses and pretensions of the church and the clergy.  Compare their criticisms and their approaches to Church reform.
  6. Although there had been heretics and reformers in the Catholic Church before Martin Luther, none had threatened the unity of the church.  What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Germany that contributed to the enormous success of Lutheranism?
  7. What were the religious and political implications of Luther's reforms?
  8. Why did the Holy Roman Empire, Charles V, in collaboration with the Pope, issue the Edict of Worms in 1521?  What were the implications of this move?
  9. Why did many German political authorities [especially the nobility] support Luther's cause?  Why was their support so essential to his success?
  10. What were the causes of the Peasants' Revolt of 1525-1526?  What was Luther's position in this upheaval?  Why did he take that position?
  11. Where was Lutheranism most successful in the 16c?
  12. What role did the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, play in the Protestant Reformation?
  13. What were the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555?  How was it a religious compromise?  What issues were left unresolved?
  Assignment #2




  1. Identify the main religious beliefs of Ulrich Zwingli.  How were they similar to Luther's beliefs?  How were they different?
  2. What were the basic beliefs of the Anabaptists?  Why do you think that they were labeled the "radicals" of the Protestant Reformation movement?
  3. Who were the Melchiorites?  Why were they so intensely persecuted?
  4. List the major beliefs of John Calvin.  How were they similar to Luther's beliefs?  How were they different?
  5. What was life like in Calvin's Geneva under his Ecclesiastical Ordinances?
  6. To where did Calvinism spread throughout the 16c?
  7. What impact did Reformation doctrines have on the family, education, and popular religious practices?
  8. How did the role of women in some Protestant churches change in the 16c?  Why did their social and religious positions remain the same in most others?
  9. According to most Reformation thinkers, what was the most important role of a woman in the Christian household?
  10. What groups in European society were most attracted to Calvinism?  Why?
  Assignment #3




  1. How did Henry VIII's marital difficulties lead to a break with Rome and the creation of an independent Church of England?
  2. What did Henry VIII do to the property of the Catholic Church once he was excommunicated by the Pope?
  3. Who much of Catholicism was retained during Henry VIII's reign?
  4. When and how did the Church of England become more Protestant?
  5. Why did Henry VIII's break with Rome have so much support from the English people?
  6. How did Mary I attempt to restore Catholicism in England?  Why did she fail?
  7. How did the power of the British monarchy increase during the reign of the Tudors? 
  8. What new political institutions/government structures were created during this period?
  Assignment #4




  1. What were the differences in interpretation of the two terms--Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation?

  2. What were the accomplishments of Pope Paul III?  of Pope Paul IV?  How did they differ in their approach to church reform?

  3. How did the responses of the church hierarchy differ from the responses of lay people?

  4. What were the primary goals of the Council of Trent?

  5. List the major positions taken by the Council of Trent on dogma and church reform.

  6. What was the condition of the papacy as it emerged after the Council of Trent?

  7. List some of the new religious orders created during this period and briefly identify the religious mission of each.

  8. How did Ignatius Loyola organize the Jesuit order?  What was its purpose?

  9. How did the Jesuits differ from previous Catholic religious orders?

  10. How did Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Exercises and the Jesuit movement itself represent a continuation of Renaissance humanism?

  11. Why was the Jesuit order so fit to serve the Catholic Counter-Reformation?

  12. How did women react to the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation?

  13. What appeal would the reforming tendencies have held for women?  Why do you suppose other women remained faithful to the Catholic Church?

  14. What were the political, economic, and social legacies of the "Two Reformations?"

  Assignment #5


  • textbook:  mid-pg. 472 to mid-pg. 477.   
  • PowerPoint:  "Baroque Art."


  1. What is the origin of the word "baroque"?
  2. What was the goal of Baroque art?  What were the characteristics of the Baroque style?
  3. How was the Baroque movement a reflection of the Counter-Reformation?




  1. Textbook Quiz --> chapter 13
  2. Other Quizzes:  A   B 

Outlines / Lecture Notes:

  1. "1300-1815" (Mr. Mercado)
  2. "The Reformation and Counter-Reformation"
  3. Martin Luther
  4. "The Reformation" (Dr. Brent Strong, Brigham Young University)
  5. The Protestant Reformation
  6. The Reformation
  7. The Reformation and Modernity
  8. chart --> "A Comparison of Catholicism after the Council of Trent & Protestantism"
  9. "General Characteristics and Historical Interpretations of Faith and Spirituality in the Sixteenth Century"
  10. "Europe and Reformation, to 1571"
  11. "The Baroque" (Dr. Brent Strong, Brigham Young University)
  12. "The Baroque Period in Music"
  13. lecture outline --> "Reformations (Protestant and Catholic)" (Prof. David McGee, Central Virginia Community College)

Review Sheets:

  1. Mine
  2. Giant EHAP Review Sheet by a student from the class of '04, Horace Greeley HS
  3. chart --> "Social History Study Guide" (Mr. Mercado)
  4. chart --> "The Rise of Constitutionalism and Liberalism" (Mr. Mercado)



Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing

College Board A. P. European History Course Description