Assignment #1
 

Sources:

 

Questions:

  1. How did the new laws of thermodynamics challenge the old Newtonian view of the universe?
  2. Identify some of the new developments in chemistry and biology in the mid- to late-19c.  What were the practical outcomes of some of these discoveries?
  3. What were some of the philosophical ideas of Auguste Comte?  How were they characteristic of much of 19c thought?
  4. What was Karl Marx's theory of history?  Where did he agree with Hegel?   disagree with Hegel?
  5. According to Marx, what was the purpose of the state? 
  6. How does a capitalist determine the value of a product?  How did Marx?
  7. Why did Marx feel that the foundations for the collapse of capitalism could be found in the capital system itself?
  8. How were Marx's theories wrong?
  9. Why did Marxism have such an appeal for so many people, despite the weaknesses in his thinking?
  10. What were the basic scientific principles of Charles Darwin's theories?  How did they challenge established assumptions in science and theology?
  11. How did social Darwinists attempt to apply Darwin's scientific theories to society?
  12. What was the argument made by T. H. Huxley regarding Social Darwinism [doc. on pg. 748]?
  13. What was Herbert Spencer's view of progress?
  14. What new social sciences were established in the mid- to late-19c?  How did they reflect the sense that Europe's was a distinctive civilization, superior to any other?
 
  Assignment #2
 

Sources:

 

Questions:

  1. Why did Marx despise the Blanquists?
  2. What were some of the major views of Mikhail Bakunin?  Why did Marx disagree with him so much?
  3. Even though the First International died out by 1872, what lessons were learned there by future Marxist revolutionaries?
  4. What is anarchism?  Who were the their greatest supporters?  How were anarchists different in philosophy and practice from the Marxists and other socialists of the late 19c?
  5. How did the Catholic Church respond to the scientific, technological, political, and social changes that abounded in the last half of the 19c?
  6. What put the various churches on the defensive and heightened the tensions between church and state?
  7. Identify the schools of political thought that questioned the power of human reason and argued for leadership by a small elite.  How did they differ from liberalism?
  8. What were the main points of Nietzsche's philosophy?  Why was he critical of Christianity?
  9. What were some of the late 19c arguments in support of anti-Semitism [see doc. on pg. 757]?
  10. Why did anti-Semitism increase at the end of the 19c in Europe?  What was Theodor Herzl's response to this phenomenon?
 
  Assignment #3
 

Sources:

 

Questions:

  1. Why is the late 19c - early 20c called "La Belle Epoque?"
  2. What were some of the characteristics of European life during La Belle Epoque?
  3. How did sports reflect the different social classes in late 19c Western Europe?
  4. Why did Western Europeans have more leisure time by the end of the 19c?  How did they spend that additional leisure time?
  5. What jobs would most women hold outside the home in the late 19c?  How did they fare in the workplace compared to men?
  6. What were some of the significant changes made in women's employment by the 1880s?  Why were these changes helpful to the women's movement?
  7. What were the prevailing views regarding women's roles, status, etc., in 19c society?  How were these views beginning to change?
  8. Why was there so much variety in artistic style by the middle of the 19c?
  9. How did the various art movements of the mid- to late-19c reflect the social/political tensions between the individual and society?  How were they an expression of the new political/scientific ideas of the times?
  10. How did Realism differ from Romanticism?  How did it reflect the economic and social realities of Europe in the mid-19c?
  11. How did Impressionism/Post-Impressionism represent an artistic revolution?
  12. Evaluate the following statement:   In the late 19c, never had the artist and society been so far apart.
 
  Assignment #4
 

Sources:

  • textbook:  mid-pg. 758 to mid-pg. 766.   
  • PowerPoint:  "The 1905 Russian Revolution."
 

Questions:

  1. What immediate problems confronted France after her loss in the Franco-Prussian War?  How were these problems resolved?
  2. Why did right-wing conservatives fail to establish a monarchy in France after 1870?
  3. What did the communards really represent to many Europeans?
  4. Identify the major scandals/crises that challenged the new Third French Republic.
  5. Why was the Dreyfus Affair the "O. J." Trial of the late 19c?
  6. Identify Italian Prime Minister Francesco Crispi's policies.  How did they divide the country?
  7. How did Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti introduce limited liberal programs into Italy in the early 20c?
  8. What were the personal and political weaknesses of Tsar Nicholas II?
  9. Why did Russia loose the Russo-Japanese War?  What were the long-term results for each country?
  10.  Regarding the Russian Revolution of 1905:
    - Identify the major political groups that agitated for change.
    - What were the causes of this revolution?
    - What was "Bloody Sunday?"  How was it a turning point for the Russian monarchy?
    - What reforms did Nicholas II propose?
    - What was the October Manifesto?  How did the liberals and the socialists and revolutionaries
      react to its proposals?
  11. How did the Fundamental Laws limit the power of the Tsars? What was Nicholas II's response?
  12. What changes in Russia were brought about by the Revolution of 1905?
 
  Assignment #5
 

Sources:

 

Questions:

  1. What were some of the key points of Prime Minister Gladstone's 1867 reform bill?
  2. How did Gladstone's first ministry alter the relationship between government and society?
  3. How was the British Conservative Party more "liberal" in its political agenda than the actual Liberal Party?
  4. What was Gladstone's policy toward Ireland?  How did it affect the Liberal Party?
  5. Why was there continued labor unrest in Britain at the end of the 19c and early 20c?
  6. Why was the Labour Party created?
  7. What were the new programs put into place by the Liberal Party after their overwhelming victory in 1906?  How did they attempt to pay for them?
  8. How did David Lloyd George's "People's Bill" lead to a constitutional crisis in pre-World War I Britain?
  9. What was the vision of women's roles as articulated by suffragettes like Emmeline Pankhurst [see doc. on pg. 958]?
 

                
 
 
 

                
 
Quizzes:
  1. Textbook Quiz --> chapter 26
  2. Other Quizzes: 
Outlines / Lecture Notes:
  1. "1848-1914" (Mr. Mercado)
  2. "Science- Determinism and Uncertainty:19c & 20c" (Paul Halsall, Fordham University)
  3. "Impressionism and Fin de Siècle" (Paul Halsall, Fordham University)
  4. "The Russo-Japanese War"
  5. lecture outline --> "Optimism and Tensions – Europe in the second half of the 19th century" (Prof. David McGee, Central Virginia Community College)
Review Sheets:
  1. Mine
  2. Giant EHAP Review Sheet by a student from the class of '04, Horace Greeley HS
  3. chart --> "Social History Study Guide" (Mr. Mercado)
  4. chart --> "Economics Development Study Guide" (Mr. Mercado)
  5. chart --> "The Rise of Constitutionalism and Liberalism" (Mr. Mercado)

 


   
 

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing

College Board A. P. European History Course Description (.pdf file)