Primary Source Documents
bullet 1950s Ads - Google Search list
bullet The 1950s American Dream - YouTube videos
bullet The 1952 Presidential Campaign (American Museum of Moving Images)
bullet The 1956 Presidential Campaign (American Museum of Moving Images)
bullet The African American Odyssey (Library of Congress)
bullet African American World Timeline (PBS)
bullet The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents - Ellen Schrecker (excerpts from her book)
bullet The Alger Hiss Story
bullet Allen Ginsberg's FBI File
bullet American Art Timeline
bullet American Cultural History:  1950-1959
bullet A. Philip Randolph (1889-1979)
bullet Arctic Sovereignty and the Cold War (eHistory)
bullet Atomic Toys- Atomic Energy in Popular Culture- 1946-1969
bullet Baby Boomer Homepage
bullet Baptism by Fire - CIA Analysis of the Korean War (downloadable pdf files)
bullet Baseball and Jackie Robinson (LOC)
bullet The Beat Page
bullet Beyond Brown : Pursuing the Promise (PBS)
bullet Billy Joel's Song "We Didn't Start the Fire" - about the 1940s, mostly 1950s, and early 1960s
bullet Birmingham Civil Rights Institute
bullet "A Black Theology of Liberation" - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet "Blacklisting Hollywood's Communists" - The Museum of Communism
bullet Brown v. Board- Five Communities That Changed America
bullet Cartoon Collection - Harry Truman (Truman Presidential Library)
bullet Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism:  1830-end
bullet Cinema of the Fifties
bullet Citizen King (American Experience, PBS)
bullet The Civil Rights Era (LOC)
bullet Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive (University of Southern Mississippi)
bullet Civil Rights Movement (Spartacus)
bullet The Civil Rights Movement 1955-1965
bullet Civil Rights Veterans
bullet The Cold War Museum
bullet Cold War Policies:  1945-1991
bullet Cold War Timeline
bullet COINTELPRO: The FBI's Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens
bullet Cold War International History Project
bullet Documents on the War in Vietnam:  1945-1975
bullet "Duck!, and Cover!"- Fear of The Bomb (YouTube video)
bullet Dwight D. Eisenhower Library and Museum
bullet Dwight D. Eisenhower - POTUS site
bullet Dwight D. Eisenhower - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Dwight D. Eisenhower Job Approval Chart - Wall Street Journal
bullet Elvis Presley
bullet Examining the Korean War
bullet Executive Orders - President Eisenhower (first page starts with list in 1951)
bullet Executive Orders - President Truman (first page starts with 1945)
bullet Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956:  Creating the Interstate Highway System
bullet Fifties Tunes
bullet The Fifties Web
bullet From Swastika to Jim Crow - (Frontline PBS series)
bullet Government Views of The Rosenberg Spy Case
bullet Harry S. Truman - POTUS site
bullet Harry S. Truman - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Herblock's History:  Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millenium
bullet Historical Census Browser:  1950
bullet History of Motion Pictures - Timeline of the '50s
bullet The History of Rock 'n Roll - The Golden Decade (1954-1963)
bullet "Hollywood Blacklisting" - article by Dan Georgakas in the Encyclopedia of the American Left
bullet "Ignominious Defeat: The Rise and Fall Surrounding the Army-McCarthy Hearings" - Jason Gottlieb in The Michigan Journal of History (Winter 2002)
bullet Jack Kerouac and the Beat Generation
bullet James Baldwin (1924-1987)
bullet Jonas Salk, M.D.- Developer of the polio vaccine
bullet The Korean War and Its Origins:  1945-1953 -- huge amount of documents (Harry Truman Library)
bullet The Korean War Project
bullet Labor History Timeline: 1648-2005 (University of Hawaii-West Oahu)
bullet The Language of the "Hip"
bullet Levittown:  Documents of an Ideal American Suburb - Peter Bacon Hales
bullet Little Rock Central High School - 40th Anniversary
bullet The Literature and Culture of the American 1950s
bullet Major Events in:  1950     1951     1952    1953    1954    1955    1956    1957    1958    1959
bullet The Man Behind McCarthyism
bullet Map-->"The Cold War Alignments:  1945-1960"
bullet Map-->"Vietnam"
bullet Map-->"Wars and Atrocities in the Third Quarter of the 20c:  1950-1975"
bullet Marie (Mamie) Geneva Doud Eisenhower (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet "Martin Luther King, Jr." - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site
bullet McCarthyism (Spartacus)
bullet The Meaning of Suburbia - Prof. Roland Marchand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet "Modernism and Abstraction" - art works from the Smithsonian American Art Museum
bullet The Murder of Emmett Till | Special Features | American Experience
bullet The National Archives Learning Curve | Cold War
bullet National Civil Rights Museum
bullet Novels of the Korean War
bullet - many documents
bullet The Papers of President Dwight D. Eisenhower (Avalon Project)
bullet The Papers of President Harry S. Truman (Truman Library)
bullet The Peoples' Century:  Boomtime (1945-1973) - PBS
bullet Powerful Days - The Civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore
bullet Presidential Election Results (map & stats) --  1952     1956
bullet "Rachel Carson and the Awakening of Environmental Consciousness" - essay by Linda Lear (G. Wash. Univ.)
bullet Red Channels: Blacklisting in Radio and Television (LOC)
bullet The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow
bullet Rock n' Roll Hall of Fame and Museum (Cleveland, Ohio)
bullet The Rosa Parks Story (CBS News)
bullet The Rosenberg Trial, 1951
bullet Santa Clara Valley in the Fabulous Fifties
bullet "Scenes of American Life" - art works from the Smithsonian American Art Museum
bullet School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas
bullet The Secret CIA History of the Iran Coup: 1953
bullet Sputnik: Celebrating 50 Years of Space Flight - lots of documents
bullet "Tick, Tock!  Tick, Tock!" - Herblock's cartoons on the beginnings of the Atomic Age
bullet Truman Presidential Museum and Library
bullet TV in the 50s
bullet -- The secret White House recordings of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Roosevelt, Truman, and Eisenhower
bullet "With Little Deliberate Speed- School Integration in Prince George's County, Maryland" - Lisa Cozzens (essay)

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet 1940-62:  National Defense Budgets, 1940-1964 - chart
bullet 1940-60:  American Birthrate, 1940-1960 - chart
bullet 1940-90:  Budget Deficits, 1940-1990 - chart
bullet 1940-95:  US military (national defense) outlays, 1940-95
bullet 1945-60:  Various Documents on "America & the Meaning of Suburbia"      (additional documents)
bullet 1945-90:  Defense Expenditures, Armed Forces Strength - chart
bullet 1950:  National Security Council Memorandum Number 68
bullet 1950-70:  Unemployment, 1950-1970 - chart
bullet 1950-85:  Women in the Workforce, 1950-1985 - chart
bullet 1950:  CIA Summaries on the North Korean Invasion, July
bullet 1950:  “Don’t Smoke—Unless You Like It” - A 1950 Case Against Antismoking
bullet 1950:  “Enemies from Within” - Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and President Harry S. Truman Trade Accusations of Disloyalty
bullet 1950:  Internal Security Act (McCarran Act)
bullet 1950:  Malcolm X letter from prison (2/15)
bullet 1950:  “National Suicide” - Margaret Chase Smith and Six Republican Senators Speak Out Against Joseph McCarthy’s Attack on “Individual Freedom”
bullet 1950:  NSC-68: Report on the Soviet Threat (4/14)
bullet 1950:  Report of the United Nations Commission on Korea
bullet 1950:  "Salem, 1950" - George Marshall in Masses & Mainstream (July)
bullet 1950:  Senator Joseph McCarthy's Speech on Communists in the State Department, February
bullet 1950:  Statement by President Truman on US support of So. Korea
bullet 1950:  Telegram from Senator Joseph McCarthy to President Harry S. Truman
bullet 1950:  U. N. Resolution #83 on North Korea (6/27)
bullet 1950:  “A Youngster Needs a Knowledge of the Present” - A Popular Magazine Urges Tolerance for the Distractions of Youth
bullet 1951:  22nd. Amendment to the U. S. Constitution
bullet 1951:  ANZUS Treaty
bullet 1951:  Dennis et. al. v. U. S.
bullet 1951:  First Inaugural Address of Dwight D. Eisenhower
bullet 1951:  Gen. Douglas MacArthur's "Old Soldiers Never Die" address to Congress (4/19)
bullet 1951:  "Higher Education's Appalling Responsibilities: Correcting the Cultural Lag" - Jazzes H. Halsey, President, University of Bridgeport (11/1)
bullet 1951:  Statement on Draft Covenant on Human Rights - Eleanor Roosevelt
bullet 1951:  President Truman Dismisses General MacArthur (4/11)
bullet 1951:  "What Makes a Hollywood Communist?" - Richard English - Saturday Evening Post (5/19)
bullet 1952:  "Checkers Speech" - Vice President Nixon
bullet 1952:  Code of the City of Montgomery, AL ("Separation of the Races")
bullet 1952:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1952:  "Eisenhower for President," 30 second political campaign ad (courtesy PBS) (.mov format)
bullet 1952:  Greenback Party Platform - campaign handout
bullet 1952:  “Have You No Sense of Decency” - The Army-McCarthy Hearings
bullet 1952:  Immigration and Nationality Act (120 pages)
bullet 1952:  "The Iron Curtain Look Is Here" - Life Magazine (women's fashion)
bullet 1952:  "Isolation and Expansion" by Walter Lippmann
bullet 1952:  New Jersey Wage Discrimination Act - this act was New Jersey's first equal pay act
bullet 1952:  “Not Only Ridiculous, but Dangerous” - Collier’s Objects to Joseph McCarthy’s Attacks on the Press
bullet 1952:  Public Act 117 - Michigan Communist Control Law (repealed in 1979)
bullet 1952:  Richard Nixon defends charges of accepting money from a "secret rich men's fund" - "Checker's Speech" (9/23)      (YouTube video - Part I  & Part II)
bullet 1952:  “The Shadow of Incipient Censorship” - The Creation of the Television Code of 1952
bullet 1952:  "Talking Un-American Blues" - song lyrics by Irwin Silber and Betty Sanders
bullet 1952:  Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
bullet 1953:  Conditions on aiding the war in Indochina - speech by Senator John F. Kennedy (6/30)
bullet 1953:  First Inaugural Address of Dwight D. Eisenhower
bullet 1953:  “Forcing the Resignation of Women with Minor Children Is in This Day and Age an Anachronism” - Support for Change in Army Policy
bullet 1953:  K. D. Nichols, General Manager, Atomic Energy Commission, to J. Robert Oppenheimer (12/23)
bullet 1953:  Korean War Armistice Agreement (7/27)
bullet 1953:  “A Mother’s Duty to Her Children” - No Women with Dependent Children in the Armed Forces Reserves
bullet 1953:  On the Draft Convention on Political Rights of Women - Eleanor Roosevelt
bullet 1953:  Panic Test - Federal Civil Defense Administration - appeared in Collier's Magazine (8/21)
bullet 1953:  Polio Hysteria - Newsweek (9/2)
bullet 1953:  "Some of My Best Friends Are Negro" - Eleanor Roosevelt in Ebony (Feb.)
bullet 1953:  “To Dictate the Terms of Motherhood” - A Female Reservist Challenges Army Policy
bullet 1954:  “After the Brawl” - Collier’s (9/6) - assessment of the Army-McCarthy hearings
bullet 1954:  "The American Response to the Geneva Declarations" (7/21)
bullet 1954:  "'Breathing Spell' for Adjustment Tempers Region's Feelings" - The New York Times (5/19)
bullet 1954:  Brown v. The Board of Education, Topeka, KS
bullet 1954:  The Comic Book Code of 1954
bullet 1954:  Communist Aggression in Guatemala
bullet 1954:  Communist Control Act
bullet 1954:  Covert Action in Guatemala          (5 documents)
bullet 1954:  “A Definite and Imperative Need for Legislation Against Discrimination”
bullet 1954:  “Digest Of Jim-Crow Laws Affecting Passengers in Interstate Travel”
bullet 1954:  Documents related to Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, KS
bullet 1954:  Eisenhower on Guatemala
bullet 1954:  "Father Knows Best" - sitcom still photographed
bullet 1954:  Geneva Peace Accords - which formally ended the Vietnam conflict between the French and the Vietnamese (7/21)
bullet 1954:  "High Court Bans School Segregation;  9-to-0 Decision Grants Time to Comply" - The New York Times (5/18)
bullet 1954:  Indochina - Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities in Viet-Nam (7/20)
bullet 1954:  J. Robert Oppenheimer to K. D. Nichols (6/1)
bullet 1954:  John Foster Dulles on Massive Retaliation
bullet 1954:  Letters to the Editor about Alan Paton’s 1954 Article “ The Negro in America Today”
bullet 1954:  “The McHugh Report: What Americans Need to Learn About Sex” - Dr. Gelolo McHugh with J. Robert Moskin in Collier’s (11/9)
bullet 1954:  The moment that ended McCarthyism.The Army counsel humiliates McCarthy on national TV (YouTube videos)
bullet 1954:  “The Negro in the North” - South African Novelist Alan Paton Dissects the Racial Situation Beyond the South
bullet 1954:  “No Heat, No Water . . . and a Large Sign Reading ‘Colored’” - Inequality in “Separate but Equal” Railroad Accommodations
bullet 1954:  President Eisenhower's Letter of Support to Ngo Dinh Diem - the president's offer of American aid to support Diem of South Vietnam in "developing and maintaining a strong, viable state" (10/23)
bullet 1954:  President Eisenhower speaks on the "Domino Effect" in Southeast Asia - Washington, DC (4/7)
bullet 1954:  Protocol to the SEATO Treaty (9/8)
bullet 1954:  The Rating Game - Broadcasters Rely on Poll Numbers They Don’t Trust
bullet 1954:  Senate Resolution 301 - censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy 12/2)
bullet 1954:  “Supreme Court Decisions Just Are Not Enough” - The Need for Federal Legislation to Desegregate the South
bullet 1954:  "The Truth About Indochina" - Senator John F. Kennedy (4/6)
bullet 1954:  United States v. Lattimore
bullet 1954:  “Where Do You Stand on the Gravest Question of Our Time?” - Styles Bridges in Collier’s (1/8) - A Senator Lays Out Military Alternatives in the Post-Korean War Atomic Age
bullet mid-1950s:  "Avoid Total Involvement" - Clark Kerr, Chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, from a speech made in the mid-1950s
bullet 1955:  "Another Torch for Freedom!" - political cartoon on the polio vaccine
bullet 1955:  “The Constant Reiteration of Horror and Violence” - A Senate Report on Television and Juvenile Delinquency
bullet 1955:  Felix Frankfurter's draft decree to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision (4/8)
bullet 1955:  “Here is the Utopian Promise of the Peacetime Atom” - David O. Woodbury in Look (9/9)
bullet 1955:  "Howl" - poem by Allen Ginsberg
bullet 1955:  “I Have Sung in Hobo Jungles, and I Have Sung for the Rockefellers” - Pete Seeger Refuses to “Sing” for HUAC
bullet 1955:  Governor Adlai Stevenson Describes a Woman's Place
bullet 1955:  Mississippi Literacy Test
bullet 1955:  "Negroes' Most Urgent Needs" - list presented to the Montgomery, AL City Council before the bus boycott
bullet 1955:  “One Should Not Look to Research as a Kind of a Panacea” - Social Scientists in the 1950s Discuss Studies of Television Viewing by Children
bullet 1955:  "On the Verge of a Dangerous Racial Conflagration" - E. Frederic Morrow (11/22)
bullet 1955:  The Polio Vaccine - Newsweek
bullet 1955:  Presidential Libraries Act
bullet 1955:  The Right of Interposition - The Richmond News Leader, Nov. 22 & 29
bullet 1955:  Second Inaugural Address of Dwight D. Eisenhower
bullet 1855:  “Violent Death in Every Form Imaginable” - A Senate Committee Report Assesses “Crime and Horror” Comic Books
bullet 1955:  “What I Tell My Child About Color” - Black and White Fathers in Atlanta Try to Explain Race Relations to Their Sons
bullet 1955-60:  Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout
bullet 1956:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1956:  "Duong Loi Cach Mang Mien Nam," [The Path of Revolution in the South] - Le Duan
bullet 1956:  "Howl" - a poem by Allen Ginsberg
bullet 1956:  "Integrated Bus Suggestions" - list submitted by the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. to the Montgomery, AL City Council (12/19)
bullet 1956:  Ladies Home Journal article, "Young Mother"
bullet 1956:  Liberalism in America--A Note for Europeans - Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. from The Politics of Hope
bullet 1956:  “The Negro Voter: Can He Elect a President?" - Theodore H. White in Collier’s, (8/17)
bullet 1956:  "The New Isolationism" - Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. in The Atlantic Monthly (May)
bullet 1956:  “The Ordeal of Bobby Cain” - Racial Confrontation at a Newly Integrated Southern High School
bullet 1956:  Photo (UPI) of Rosa Parks Sitting in the Front of a Birmingham, AL Bus (12/21)
bullet 1956:  “Public Responsibilities . . . Public Wrongs” - Union Officials Blame the Taft-Hartley Act for Mob Antiunion Violence
bullet 1956:  “The ‘Right’ To Sell” vs. “The Sanctuary of Christian Homes” - Proposed Legislation to Limit Liquor Advertising
bullet 1956:  Rules for Riding Desegregated Buses [in Montgomery, AL], December 19
bullet 1956:  The Southern Manifesto
bullet 1956:  “You Are the Un-Americans, and You Ought to be Ashamed of Yourselves” - Paul Robeson Appears Before HUAC
bullet 1956:  “Where Men Go Wrong About Women Voters” - Walter Davenport in Collier's (9/14)
bullet 1956-60:  "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?" - song lyrics by Pete Seeger and Joe Hickerson
bullet 1957:  "The Birth of a New Nation" sermon at the Dexter Ave. Baptist Church - Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (4/7)
bullet 1957:  Civil Rights Act of 1957
bullet 1957:  Executive Order 10730 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower ending segregation in Little Rock's Central High School (2nd half of the page)
bullet 1957:  Front Page of the New York Times - "President Sends Troops to Little Rock" (9/25)
bullet 1957:  In Your Hands - Eleanor Roosevelt on the 10th Anniversary of the U. N.'s Declaration on Human Rights (3/27)
bullet 1957:  A jeering Student follows Elizabeth Echford as she walks down a line of National Guardsmen who barred her from entering the Central High School - AP wirephoto (9/5)
bullet 1957:  Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1957
bullet 1957:  Memorandum of Conference with President Eisenhower after Sputnik on October 8, 1957  (page 1)    (page 2)
bullet 1957:  “Mob Rule Cannot Be Allowed to Override the Decisions of Our Courts ”- President Dwight D. Eisenhower“s 1957 Address on Little Rock, AR
bullet 1957:  Orval E. Faubus' Speech on his use of the National Guard to prevent the integration of Little Rock High School (9/18)        (audio of the speech)
bullet 1957:  Photo (UPI) of Federal paratroopers escort African American pupils to Central High School in Little Rock, AR (9/26)
bullet 1957:  Roth v. United States
bullet 1957:  Second Inaugural Address of Dwight D. Eisenhower
bullet 1957:  Secretary Dulles' News Conference Regarding the Russian Launch of Sputnik (10/16)
bullet 1957:  "Scientists Wonder if Shot Nears Moon" - NY Times (11/5)
bullet 1957:  "Soviet Fires New Satellite, Carrying Dog; Half-Ton Sphere Is Reported 900 Miles Up" - NY Times (11/3)
bullet 1957:  "Vanguard Rocket Burns on Beach; Failure to Launch Test Satellite Assailed as Blow to U.S. Prestige" - NY Times (12/7)
bullet 1957:  Yates v. United States
bullet 1958:  The Affluent Society - John Kenneth Galbraith
bullet 1958:  Cooper v. Aaron
bullet 1958:  Letter from Jackie Robinson to President Eisenhower (5/13)
bullet 1958:  NAACP v. Alabama
bullet 1958:  “Part of the Government Activity” - Testimony from an African-American Taxpayer Unable to Vote in Alabama
bullet 1958:  President Eisenhower's speech commenting on the past events in Little Rock, AR
bullet 1959:  “Every Effort Was Made to Control the Shows” - A Television Producer Details and Defends Deceptive Quiz Show Practices
bullet 1959:  “A Make-Believe World” - Contestants Testify to Deceptive Quiz Show Practices
bullet 1959:  National Security Act of 1959
bullet 1959:  “A Sop to the Public at Large” - Contestant Herbert Stempel Exposes Contrivances in a 1950s Television Quiz Show
bullet 1959:  “The Truth Is the Only Thing with Which a Man Can Live” - Quiz Show Contestant Charles Van Doren Publicly Confesses to Deceiving His Television Audience
bullet 1959:  Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Khrushchev tangle during "The Kitchen Debate," at the U.S. embassy in Moscow, Soviet Union (7/24)       (video)
bullet 1960:  "Duck and Cover" (video file) - Bert the Turtle - nuclear air raid drill

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing