Primary Source Documents
bullet About the Carlisle Indian Industrial School--by Barbara Landis
bullet Albert Bierstadt - Rocky Mountain School artist
bullet American West- Multicultural Perspectives
bullet The American West: A Virtual Library - lots of links
bullet Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Battle with the Apache, 1872 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet A Biography of America:  The West (1862-1893) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet Black Populism in the South
bullet Buffalo Bill Entertains a Russian Grand Duke, 1872 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
bullet Buffalo Soldiers and the Indian Wars
bullet Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier
bullet Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid Rob a Train, 1899 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet California and the Indian Wars-The Moduc War:  1872-1873
bullet California as I Saw It: First-Person Narratives, 1849-1900
bullet Camping With the Sioux:  Fieldwork Diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
bullet Captured by the Arapaho, 1875 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Carlisle Indian Industrial School History
bullet The Central Pacific Railroad       (Museum)
bullet The Cheyenne Outbreak Barracks:  1879
bullet Chief Joseph (Nez Percé) Quotes
bullet The Chinese at Promontory, Utah (April 30 - May 10, 1869)
bullet The Chinese-American Contribution to the Transcontinental Railroad
bullet The Chinese Must Go!  The Debate Over the California Constitutional Convention, 1878-1879 - Prof. Roland Marchand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet The Colored Farmers Alliance
bullet Completing the Transcontinental Railroad, 1869 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet A Cowboy in Dodge City, 1882 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Crossing the Plains, 1865 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Custer Battlefield Historical & Museum Association
bullet Dakota Conflict Trials (1862)
bullet The Dalton Gang's Last Ride, 1892 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Death of "Bill the Kid", 1881 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Death of the Dream- Farmhouses in the Heartland
bullet Doctrine of Riparian Rights (1)   (2)  
bullet Encounter with the Texas Rangers, 1876 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Exodusters Mark the Spot (Kansas City Public Library)
bullet Frederic Remington
bullet Frederick Jackson Turner
bullet George Catlin and His Indian Gallery
bullet George Catlin's Obsession (Smithsonian Magazine)
bullet Geronimo:  His Own Story
bullet Great Chicago Fire, 1871
bullet Great Migration:  Documents for Investigation
bullet The Great Transatlantic Cable (PBS)
bullet Helen Hunt Jackson: An Early Advocate for Native Peoples
bullet Homes on the Prairie (PBS)
bullet Historical Census Browser:   1870        1880        1890
bullet History of the American West:  1860-1920 (LOC)
bullet Horatio Alger Digital Repository (Northern Illinois University)   
bullet How the U. S. Cavalry Saved Our National Parks - H. Duane Hampton (1971)
bullet Images of the American West - many great photos
bullet In Search of the Oregon Trail (PBS)
bullet Index of Native American Resources on the Internet
bullet "The Iron Horse- the impact of the railroads on 19th century American society" - Marieke van Ophem (essay)
bullet Iron Road (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet John Muir Exhibit (Sierra Club)
bullet Johnny Ringo: King of the Cowboys
bullet Klondike Gold Rush- The Perilous Journey North Univ. of WA)
bullet Laura Ingalls Wilder
bullet The Legacy of George Washington Carver
bullet Lest We Forget--People of Color on America's Western Frontier
bullet Links to Digital Native American Resources
bullet Little Big Horn Associates Homepage
bullet Lost in the Grand Canyon (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet "The Lure of the West" - Treasures from the Smithsonian American Art Museum
bullet Luther Burbank Home and Gardens Home Page
bullet Mark Twain - Full Text Newspaper and Magazine Articles
bullet Massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet The National Grange
bullet National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center
bullet Native American Authors - Internet Public Library
bullet Native American Documents Project (CA State Univ., San Marcos)
bullet Nativism, Socialism, and the Populist Demise
bullet New Perspectives on the West (PBS)
bullet Nez Percé Photograph Gallery
bullet The Northern Great Plains, 1880-1920 -- Photographs from the Fred Hultstrand and F. A. Pazandak Photograph Collections (LOC)
bullet Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet Northwest of the West- the Frontier Experience on the Northwest Coast
bullet The Oklahoma Land Rush, 1893 (Eyewitness of History)
bullet Old West Web
bullet Oregon mining camps & historical reports on gold mining
bullet Oregon Trail (1)
bullet Photographing the American Indian: Portraits of Native Americans, 1860-1913 (MA Historical Society)
bullet Photographs of the American West:  1861-1912 (National Archives)
bullet Poker Alice - Wild Women of the Wild West
bullet Puritan Origins of the American Wilderness Movement
bullet Ranchers & Farmers Collide, 1884 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Rise of Barbed Wire and Its Transformation of the American Frontier (University of Virginia)
bullet Rural Life in the Late 19c - personal accounts and photographs
bullet San Francisco's "Barbary Coast" Trail
bullet Shoot Out with "Wild Bill" Hicock, 1869 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Sitting Bull
bullet Sketches of Wisconsin Pioneer Women
bullet The Sierra Club Official Web Site
bullet Southern Pacific Railroad Web Resources Page (Peter J. McClosky)
bullet Thomas Moran and the American Landscape
bullet A Timeline of American Indian Cultures
bullet Trains of the American West
bullet Transcontinental Railroad (PBS - The American Experience)
bullet Transcontinental Railroad Historic Engravings
bullet Traveling on an Emigrant Train, 1879 (Eyewitness to History)
bullet Truimph and Tragedy- Women's Voices from the Oregon Trail
bullet - Mark Twain Quotations, Newspaper Collections, & Related Resources
bullet Unincorporated:  Native Americans and the Age of Incorporation, 1880-1900 (University of Virgina)
bullet Virgin Land- The American West as Symbol and Myth
bullet WestWeb-Western History
bullet The West's Best at Desert Caballeros Western Museum
bullet Wild! Wild! West! - site of web links
bullet Wisconsin Pioneer Experience
bullet Women of the Alaska Gold Rush
bullet Women of the West
bullet The Woman's National Indian Association
bullet Wounded Knee Home Page
bullet Wyatt Earp-A Life on the Frontier
bullet Wyoming and the Chinese: Cultural Diversity, 1850 to 1895

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet late 19c"The Little Sod Shanty On My Claim" - poem
bullet late 19c?:  "The Sioux Indians" - song lyrics by a pioneer crossing the Great Plains
bullet late 19c"The Wabash Cannonball" - song lyrics
bullet 1851:  First Fort Laramie Treaty (9/17)
bullet 1855:  Treaty with the Nez Perce
bullet 1855:  Treaty with the Tribes of Middle Oregon
bullet 1855:  Treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, etc.
bullet 1855:  Treaty with the Yakima
bullet 1860s-70s:  Trials of the Trail - African-American Cowboy Will Crittendon (as recalled in the 1930s)
bullet 1861-1920:  Railroad Construction, 1861-1920 - chart
bullet 1862:  Chinese Police Tax Act (4/26)
bullet 1862:  "Walking" - essay by Henry David Thoreau
bullet 1864:  "The Gold Rush Song" - poem
bullet 1864:  "The Red Man's Plea" - Continental Monthly / Volume 5, Issue 2, February 1864]
bullet 1864:  Two Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News on the Battle of Sandy Creek & the Fort Lyon Affair
bullet 1865:  Congressional testimony by John S. Smith, an eyewitness to the Ft. Lyon massacre
bullet 1865:  Testimony of Colonel J. M. Chivington (4/26)
bullet 1867-68:  An Indian War Veteran's Experience in Kansas and New Mexico During the Indian Wars of 1867-1868 - William Thornton Parker
bullet 1867:  Medicine Lodge Treaty (10/28)
bullet 1868:  Fort Laramie Treaty
bullet 1868:  General Custer's report to General Sherman - The Battle of Washita
bullet 1868:  Plan for Action - Organizing the Grangers
bullet 1868:  Report to the President by the Indian Peace Commission (1/7)
bullet 1868-74:  Selection of Cowboy Songs (5)
bullet 1869:  "Building the Transcontinental Railroad" - Samuel Bowles (chapter 3 of his book, Our new West: Records of travel between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean)
bullet 1869:  Joining Tracks of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific Railroads (photo)
bullet 1870:  Minnesota As It Is in 1870 - John W. McClung
bullet 1871:  Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (11/15)
bullet 1872:  "Millions of acres.  Iowa and Nebraska...," Burlington & Missouri River R. R. Co. - broadside
bullet 1872:  National Mining Act (5/10)
bullet 1873:  "California- For Health, Pleasure and Residence" - Charles Nordhoff
bullet 1873:  Timber Culture Act (3/3)
bullet 1873:  “We Are Not Entirely Out of Civilization” - A Homesteader Writes Home in 1873
bullet 1874:  George Armstrong Custer poses with his Indian scouts during the Black Hills expedition of 1874 - photo
bullet 1874:  Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade of the West and Southwest - Joseph G. McCoy
bullet 1874:  Narrative of My Captivity Among the Sioux Indians - Fanny Kelly
bullet 1874:  US Patent for Barbed Wire Fence - Joseph Glidden
bullet 1874:  Written in Stone - The Ten Commandments of the Grange
bullet 1875:  Page Law (3/3) - prohibited immigration of Chinese women for the purpose of prostitution
bullet 1875:  “A Little Standing Army in Himself” - N. A. Jennings Tells of the Texas Rangers
bullet 1876:  “You Would Never Hear People Complain” - Elfido López Recalls Rural Mexican-American Life in the Late 19th century (as recalled in 1937)
bullet 1877:  Desert Land Act (3/3)
bullet 1877:  In Search of Eden - Black Utopias in the West
bullet 1877-79:  Chief Joseph Speaks - selected statements and speeches by the Nez Percé Chief
bullet 1878:  Buffalo Hide Yard in Dodge City, Kansas (photo)
bullet 1878:  "Ho for Kansas!" - handbill
bullet 1878:  US v. Reynolds
bullet 1879:  "An Indian's View of Indian Affairs" - Joseph Young
bullet 1879:  Mormon Emigrants Moving to Utah (photo)
bullet 1880:  Testimony of Benjamin Singleton before Congress regarding African-American migration from the Southern states to Kansas
bullet 1880:  "The Wards of the United States Government" - H. H.
bullet 1881:  A Century of Dishonor (excerpts) - Helen Hunt Jackson
bullet 1881:  The Battle of Little Bighorn - an eyewitness account by the Lakota Chief Red Horse recorded at the Cheyenne River Reservation
bullet 1881:  Ebenezer Bryce's Cabin in Utah (photo)
bullet 1881:  Indian Policy Reform: President Chester Arthur on legislation needed to dissolve "the tribal bond, which is so prominent a feature of savage life"
bullet 1883:  "The Frontier Prospector" - from The Overland Monthly. 2:2 (1883)
bullet 1885:  The Albuquerque Indian School (photos)
bullet 1885:  Sitting Bull (photo)
bullet 1887:  Crow Indian Chiefs and Crow Prisoners (photos)
bullet 1887:  Congressional Report on Indian Affairs
bullet 1887:  Dawes Act
bullet 1887:  Gardiner Park County, Montana (photo) - frontier town
bullet 1887:  Hatch Act
bullet 1888:  Theodore Roosevelt, Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail
bullet 1889:  Colored Alliance Demands
bullet 1889-92:  Selections from "With the Nez Perces" - E. Jane Gay
bullet 1890s?:  A Lakota Ghost Dancing shirt, believed to protect its wearer from bullets
bullet 1890s?:  Soldiers pose with three of the four Hotchkiss Guns used against the Lakota at Wounded Knee - photo
bullet 1890:  "Custer's Last Battle" - Captain Charles King
bullet 1890:  The Ghost Dance Among the Lakota - Mrs. Z. A. Parker, description of a Ghost Dance observed on White Clay creek at Pine Ridge reservation, Dakota Territory, June 20
bullet 1890:  Mrs. Z. A. Parker, the Ghost Dance at Pine Ridge Reservation - an eyewitness account
bullet 1890:  Second Morrill Act
bullet 1890:  "Three Noted Chiefs of the Sioux" - anonymous in Harper's Weekly 34, 20 Oct. 1890: 995
bullet 1891:  Account of Sitting Bull's death - James McLoughlin, Indian Agent at Standing Rock Reservation
bullet 1891:  Allotment Act
bullet 1891:  "The Farmers Situation" - W.A. Peffer, The Farmer's Side
bullet 1891:  Lakota accounts of the massacre at Wounded Knee
bullet 1891:  A Mormon Woman’s Life in Southern Utah
bullet 1891:  General Nelson A. Miles on the "Sioux Outbreak" of 1890
bullet 1891:  Report on Wounded Knee Massacre and the Decrease in Indian Land Acreage - Benjamin Harrison
bullet 1891:  Wovoka, The Messiah Letter -- the message that sparked the Ghost Dance movement
bullet 1892:  Populist Party Platform
bullet 1892:  The True Story of Christopher Columbus, Called the Great Admiral - Elbridge Streeter Brooks
bullet 1892:  “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man” - Capt. Richard C. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans
bullet 1893:  Life on Prairie Farms - E. V. Smalley
bullet 1893:  The Significance of the Frontier in American History - Frederick Jackson Turner
bullet 1895:  "An Indian on the Problems of His Race" - Simon Pokagon
bullet 1896:  "An Interesting Representative of a Vanishing Race" - B. O. Flower
bullet 1896:  The Life and Adventures of Calamity Jane by Herself
bullet 1897:  "The Future of the Red Man" - Simon Pokagon
bullet 1899:  "The Indian on the Reservation" - George Bird Grinnell
bullet late 19c?:  Chief Joseph in his later years, photographed by Edward Curtis
bullet 1900:  "An Indian Allotment" - Francis La Flesche
bullet 1900:  "Impressions of an Indian Childhood" - Zitkala-Sa
bullet 1900:  "The Indian Territory" - paper was read at the Lake Mohonk Indian Conference by Henry L. Dawes
bullet 1903:  Captured by the Indians- Reminiscences of Pioneer Life in Minnesota - Minnie Buce Carrigan
bullet 1904:  "The Last Protest: A Story of Montana" - Henry Oyen   (part II)
bullet 1905:  "Friends of the Indians" - John M. Oskison
bullet 1906:  Burke Act
bullet 1906:  "The Red Man's Last Roll-Call" - Charles M. Harvey in Atlantic Monthly 97 (1906): 323-330
bullet 1907:  "Remaining Causes of Indian Discontent" - John M. Oskison
bullet 1910:  False Sentimentality About the Indians - Theodore Roosevelt
bullet 1914:  Letters of a Woman Homesteader - Eleanor Pruitt Stewart
bullet 1914:  “The White Man’s Road is Easier!” - A Hidatsa Indian Takes up the Ways of the White Man in the Late 19th century
bullet 1930s:  Home on the Range - Richard Phillips (recounts about 1870s-1880s life on the range)
bullet 1950:  Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth - Henry Nash Smith
bullet 1964:  "The Wizard of Oz:  Parable on Populism" - Henry M. Littlefield [American Quarterly, XVI (1964), 47-58]

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing