Primary Source Documents
bullet Abraham Lincoln's Classroom - The Lincoln & Lehrman Institutes
bullet America in the 1850s (E Pluribus Unum Project)
bullet "American Anti-Slavery Society" - essay by Alonford James Robinson, Jr.
bullet American Slavery:  1619-1865 -- comprehensive research links
bullet America's First Look into the Camera:  Daguerreotype Portraits and Views (1839-1864)
bullet The Anthony Burns Affair
bullet A Biography of America:  The Coming of the Civil War (1846-1861) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet Bushwhackers & Jayhawkers- Uncivil Missouri & Kansas
bullet The Causes of the Civil War - many doc. links
bullet Charles Sumner (Senator)
bullet Chronology of the Secession Crisis
bullet Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism:  1830-end
bullet The Church in the Southern Black Community
bullet Dred Scott (PBS)
bullet The Dred Scott Case (Washington Univ.)
bullet First-Person Narratives of the American South (Univ. of NC, Chapel Hill)
bullet Franklin Pierce - POTUS site
bullet Franklin Pierce - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet Frederick Douglass
bullet Graph containing information about the Union and the Confederacy on the eve of war, 1860
bullet "A Hard Shove for a "Nation on the Brink"- The Impact of Dred Scott" - Lisa Cozzens (essay)
bullet Harriet Beecher Stowe's Biography
bullet Harriet Rebecca Lane (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet Historical Census Browser:   1850        1860
bullet History of the song, "John Brown's Body"
bullet The Institution of Slavery in Pennsylvania and African American Resistance  - Black History in Pennsylvania)
bullet James Buchanan - POTUS site
bullet James Buchanan - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet James Horton on Bleeding Kansas
bullet Jane Means Appleton Pierce (National First Ladies' Library)
bullet John Brown and the Valley of the Shadow
bullet John Brown's Holy War (PBS)
bullet Joseph Henry Lumpkin Family Papers, 1821-1862
bullet Kentucky's Underground Railroad
bullet Life in Mid-19c America:  The Five Points (American Social History Project) - many docs.
bullet The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Digital Classroom
bullet Lincoln's Home in Springfield, IL
bullet Lincoln/Net - Historical Digitation Project
bullet Map-->"America in 1860--Black-and-White Outline Map"
bullet Map-->"Presidential Election Map--County-By-County"
bullet Millard Fillmore - POTUS site
bullet Millard Fillmore - Miller Institute, University of Virginia
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet Party Nominating Conventions--Spring, 1860
bullet Pinkerton Detective Agency
bullet "Politics and Sectionalism in the 1850s" - Steven Demkin (essay)
bullet Population of the United States in 1860 by States
bullet Presidential Election Results (map & stats) -- 1844    1848    1852    1856    1860
bullet Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman Univ.)
bullet Slave Census in 1860
bullet Slavery in the United States (Spartacus)
bullet Territorial Kansas Online:  1854-1861
bullet The Time of the Lincolns (The American Experience PBS series)
bullet The Trial and Execution of John Brown - Prof. Roland Marchand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture
bullet The Underground Railroad (The History Channel)

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet 1843:  Liberty Party Platform (8/30)
bullet 1844-1860:  Presidential Voting by States: 1844-1860
bullet 1844:  Liberty Party Platform
bullet 1846:  Black Laws of Ohio - The Liberator files
bullet 1847:  "Spot Resolutions" - Congressman Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1848:  "An Appeal to the Free Soil Party" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 23, Issue 125, Nov 1848
bullet 1848:  "Causes of the Success of the Whigs" - The American Whig Review / Volume 8, Issue 6, Dec 1848
bullet 1848:  "The Election" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 23, Issue 124, Oct 1848
bullet 1848:  Free Soil Party Platform
bullet 1848:  "The Honor of this Country" - speech in the House by Alexander H. Stephens (2/2)
bullet 1848:  Letter on the Free Soil Party - Gerrit Smith
bullet 1848:  "The Liberty Party" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 23, Issue 122, Aug 1848
bullet 1848:  "Millard Fillmore" - The American Whig Review / Volume 8, Issue 4, Oct 1848
bullet 1849:  "A History of Parties" - The American Whig Review / Volume 10, Issue 22, Oct 1849
bullet 1849:  Inaugural Address of Zachary Taylor
bullet 1849?:  Judge Jay's letter - "Free soil Whigs and Liberty party men, read this!" - broadside
bullet 1849:  "Origin of the Two Parties: Contrast of their Doctrines" - The American Whig Review / Volume 9, Issue 13, Jan 1849
bullet 1849:  "Popular Sovereignty and States Rights" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 25, Issue 133, July 1849
bullet 1849:  "Remarks on the Resolutions and Manifesto of the Southern Caucus" - The American Whig Review / Volume 9, Issue 15, Mar 1849
bullet 1849:  "The Southern Address" - John C. Calhoun
bullet 1850:  Calhoun's Speech on the Compromise of 1850
bullet 1850:  Census Data for the Year 1850
bullet 1850:  "Centralization" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 26, Issue 142, April 1850
bullet 1850:  Clay's Resolutions of 1850 (1/29) - Compromise of 1850
bullet 1850:  "[The Death of] John C. Calhoun" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 26, Issue 143, May 1850
bullet 1850:  Fugitive Slave Act     (broadside)
bullet 1850:  "Fugitive slave bill ... Approved" - Millard Fillmore - broadside (9/18)
bullet 1850:  The New York Herald supports the Compromise of 1850
bullet 1850:   "Read and Ponder the Fugitive Slave Law!" - broadside
bullet 1850:  Resolutions of the Nashville Convention
bullet 1850:  Seventh of March Speech - Daniel Webster
bullet 1850:  "The Stability of the Union" - De Bow's Review
bullet 1850:  "Stability of the Union" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 26, Issue 139, January 1850
bullet 1850:  Stephen A. Douglas's speech on California Admission
bullet 1850:  The Underground Railroad - Levi Coffin
bullet 1850:  The Wide, Wide World - Susan Bogert Warner
bullet 1850:  William H. Trescot on "The Position and Course of the South"
bullet 1850s:  "Dixie" - song lyrics by Daniel Decator Emmett (a Northerner)
bullet 1850s:  "The Missouri Partisan Ranger" - George Caleb Bingham's painting of Order 11
bullet 1850s:  Platform of the American Party of Massachusetts - broadside
bullet 1850 & 1860:  1850 and 1860 census records
bullet 1851:  Anti-Fugitive Slave Law Meeting Resolutions
bullet 1851:  "Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race" - Dr. Samuel Cartwright in De Bow's Review Southern and Western States (Volume XI, New Orleans)
bullet 1851:  Frances Gage Remembers Sojourner Truth Appearing at the Akron Convention
bullet 1851:  "The Fugitive Slave Law" - The American Whig Review / Volume 13, Issue 77, May 1851
bullet 1851:  "The Philosophy of the American Union; or, the Principles of its Cohesiveness" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 28, Issue 151, January
bullet 1851:  "Washington Crossing the Delaware" - painting by Emmanuel Gottlieb Leutze
bullet 1851:  "Political Motives for 1851-2" - The American Whig Review / Volume 13, Issue 37, Jan 1851
bullet 1852:  "The Convention - the Party and the Compromise" - The American Whig Review / Volume 15, Issue 90, June
bullet 1852:  "The Cuban Debate" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 31, Issue 173, Nov-Dec 1852
bullet 1852:  "The Democratic Convention" - The American Whig Review / Volume 16, Issue 91, July 1852
bullet 1852:  "The Democratic Nomination" - The American Whig Review / Volume 16, Issue 92, Aug 1852
bullet 1852:  "The Dignity and Importance of History" - Daniel Webster (2/23)
bullet 1852:  "Franklin Pierce" - The American Whig Review / Volume 16, Issue 95, Nov 1852
bullet 1852:  "Frank Pierce and Major-General Scott" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 31, Issue 172, Oct 1852
bullet 1852:  Free Soil Party Platform (8/11)
bullet 1852:  "General Scott. Triumph of the Resurrectionists" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 30, Issue 168, June 1852
bullet 1852:  Henry Clay's Will
bullet 1852:  Know-Nothing Oath (mid-page)
bullet 1852:  Lincoln's Eulogy of Henry Clay (7/6)
bullet 1852:  "Socialism" - Semi-Weekly Tribune/New York Tribune (11/16)
bullet 1852:  Uncle Tom's Cabin - Harriet Beecher Stowe (full text)
bullet 1852:  "The Whig Convention: The Candidate and the Campaign" - The American Whig Review / Volume 16, Issue 92, Aug.
bullet 1853:  Black Potential and the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin
bullet 1853:  Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi - Joseph G. Baldwin
bullet 1853:  Inaugural Address of Franklin Pierce
bullet 1854:  Appeal of the Independent Democrats
bullet 1854:  "The Crime Against Kansas" - Charles Sumner speech
bullet 1854:  DeBow's Review on the destiny of the slave states (Sept.)
bullet 1854:  Examiner's questions for admittance to the American (or Know Nothing) Party (July)
bullet 1854:  "Fragments on Slavery" - Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1854:  "The Kansas Emigrants" - poem by John Greenlief Whittier
bullet 1854:  Kansas-Nebraska Act
bullet 1854:  Kansas-Nebraska Act - editorials from over 20 newspapers
bullet 1854:  "Let the People Speak Out" - From The New York Tribune (2/13)
bullet 1854:  Letter on the revival of the slavery issue - Gerrit Smith
bullet 1854:  "The Missouri Prohibition" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 34, Issue 2, August 1854
bullet 1854:  No Compromise with the Evil of Slavery - William Lloyd Garrison
bullet 1854:  Ostend Manifesto
bullet 1854:  People v Hall
bullet 1854:  Report of the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society with the Act of Incorporation
bullet 1854:  Slavery in Massachusetts - Henry David Thoreau
bullet 1854:  Speech on the Repeal of the Missouri Compromise - A. Lincoln
bullet 1854:  Treaty of Kanagawa
bullet 1854:  Treaty of Washington, DC with the Kickapoo Indians (5/18)
bullet 1854:  "Whig Principles. What's Left of Them" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 34, Issue 6, December
bullet 1854:  William Lloyd Garrison Admits of No Compromise
bullet 1855:  Extracts from the diary and correspondence of the late Amos Lawrence; with a brief account of some incidents in his life
bullet 1855:  "The Federal Union - Shall it be Preserved?" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 36, Issue 4, October 1855
bullet 1855:  Inaugural Address of Major Levi Boone of Chicago
bullet 1855:  Letter of Abraham Lincoln on Nativism
bullet 1855:  Letter of John Brown on Bleeding Kansas
bullet 1855:  Letters of Thomas C. Wells - Kansas pioneer about "Border Ruffians" (1855-1866)
bullet 1855:  Massachusetts Personal Liberty Act
bullet 1855:  "National platform of the Know somethings" - Adopted at Cleveland, OH - broadside
bullet 1855:  "The Presidential Negative - Vetos of President Pierce" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 36, Issue 5, November 1855
bullet 1855:  Scenes in the Kansas Election - From The Liberator (7/27)
bullet 1855-63:  Julia Louisa Lovejoy, Selected Letters from Kansas
bullet 1856:  1856 Campaign - political cartoons
bullet 1856:  The Canning of Charles Sumner - editorials from over 20 newspapers
bullet 1856:  "Crimes Against Kansas" speech - Charles Sumner
bullet 1856:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1856:  "Democratic Platform, 1856" caricature/political cartoon
bullet 1856:  "Free State Battery" - photo
bullet 1856:  "Justifying Club Law" - Pittsburgh, PA Gazette (6/11)
bullet 1856:  Letter from Edward Bridgman - about "Bleeding KS"
bullet 1856:  Letter from California vigilante committee to John Stephens (9/5)
bullet 1856:  Letter from Salmon P. Chase on slave power
bullet 1856:  Letter on the revival of the slavery issue - Gideon Welles
bullet 1856:  Know-Nothing Party Platform
bullet 1856:  "On the Sumner Assault" by Preston S. Brooks
bullet 1856:  Republican Campaign Songster - songs for the 1856 campaign
bullet 1856:  Republican Party Platform of 1856
bullet 1856:  "The Reign of Terror" - From The New York Tribune (6/12)
bullet 1856:  "The Ruffians in the Senate"  - Evening Journal (5/23)
bullet 1856:  Six Months in Kansas - Hannah Anderson Ropes
bullet 1856:  "Southern Chivalry" - lithograph by John L. Magee
bullet 1856:  A Southern Response to the Caning of Sumner
bullet 1856:  "Stump Speaking" - painting by George Caleb Bingham
bullet 1856:  "Sumner and Brooks" - Journal American (5/24/1856)
bullet 1856:  "The Union - The Dangers Which Beset It. Number One" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 37, Issue 1, January 1856
bullet 1856:  "The Union - The Democratic Party - The Administration" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 37, Issue 6, June 1856
bullet 1856:  "White slavery. The new "Democratic doctrine." ... Slavery not to be confined to the negro race, but to be made the universal condition of the laboring classes of society" - broadside
bullet 1857:  The American Mind and the Traits of Webster, Clay and Calhoun by Edwin P. Whipple - excerpt from essay first published in Harper's Magazine as "American Mind"
bullet 1857:  "The American Platform of Principles" (Know-Nothings)
bullet 1857:  "Anti-slavery fair! The Abington anti-slavery fair will commence on Monday evening, Nov. 9th, at Union Hall, North Abington " - broadside     image
bullet 1857:  Dred Scott Decision - Roger Taney
bullet 1857:  Dred Scott Decision - various Supreme Court opinions on the case
bullet 1857:  Dred Scott Case - editorials from over 20 newspapers
bullet 1857:  Frederick Douglass to Gerrit Smith, April 20
bullet 1857:  The Gathering Storm - Hinton Rowan Helper
bullet 1857:  Inaugural Address of James Buchanan
bullet 1857:  Lecompton Constitution
bullet 1857:  Northern Outrage over Scott v. Sandford - From The New York Tribune (3/7)
bullet 1857:  Scott v. Sandford
bullet 1857:  Speech on the Dred Scott Decision - Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1857-1858:  Excerpt from Charles Mackay, from Life and Liberty in America: or, Sketches of a Tour in the United States and Canada in 1857-1858
bullet 1858:  Abraham Lincoln - Debate at Gatesburg, IL
bullet 1858:  "Astounding Disclosures!" - broadside on the Democratic Party by Robert Goodenow
bullet 1858:  "Cotton is King" Excerpts from "On the Admission of Kansas, Under the Lecompton Constitution" Speech Before the U.S. Senate, March 4, 1858 by James Henry Hammond
bullet 1858:  DeBow's Review on the destiny of cotton culture (May)
bullet 1858:  "The Declaration of independence, signed July 4th, 1776: A song, designed for the public schools and academies ... Pittsburgh" - broadside
bullet 1858:  "Democracy and Republicanism - Choate and Cushing" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 42, Issue 2, August 1858
bullet 1858:  "House Divided Speech" - Abraham Lincoln
bullet 1858:  "The Irrepressible Conflict" - William Seward speech
bullet 1858:  Le Marais Du Cygne - a poem on Kansas by John Greenlief Whittier published in the Atlantic Monthly (Sept.)
bullet 1858:  Letter by Andrew Johnson Evaluating James Buchanan
bullet 1858:  Lincoln-Douglas Debates
bullet 1858:  "A short sketch of our troubles in the anti-slavery cause ... Newport, Kentucky. Office of the Daily and weekly news" - broadside
bullet 1858:  "To the abolitionists and prohibitionists of the County of Madison ... Your friend Gerrit Smith" - broadside
bullet 1858-60:  Various documents on the trial and execution of John Brown   (additional documents)
bullet 1858-65:  Crusader and feminist: letters of Jane Grey Swisshelm: 1858-1865     (entire text)
bullet 1859:  African colonization--its principles and aims. An address delivered by John H. B. Latrobe, president of the American Colonization Society, at anniversary meeting of the American Colonization Society held in the Smithsonian (1/18)
bullet 1859:  Anti-slavery hymns for the New England anti-slavery convention (5/25-26) - broadside
bullet 1859:  "The Dividing Line Between Federal and Local Authority" - Stephen Douglas
bullet 1859:  "Execution of Capt. John Brown. At a meeting of the executive committee of the American anti-slavery society, held in Boston, November 1st, the following resolution was adopted " - broadside
bullet 1859:  Harpers Ferry headline - John Brown's raid
bullet 1859:  John Brown Final Address to the Court (11/2)
bullet 1859:  John Brown's testimony given to Senator Mason (10/16)
bullet 1859:  John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry, VA - editorials from over 20 newspapers
bullet 1859:  Letter of William Smith - about Bleeding Kansas
bullet 1859:  Letter of William Windom to Edward R. Parry et al. describing the "Southern fires eaters" in Congress
bullet 1859:  "Logical Results of Republicanism" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 43, Issue 2, October 1859
bullet 1859?:  A Plea for Captain John Brown - Henry David Thoreau
bullet 1859?:  "Political and industrial reform" - broadside
bullet 1859:  Responses to John Brown's Raid at Harpers Ferry (Ohio Enquirer October 19; Chicago, Illinois Press and Tribune October 20
bullet 1859:  Various Documents on the Trial & Execution of John Brown
bullet late 1850s?:  "John Brown's Body Lies A-Moldin' in the Grave" - song lyrics
bullet 1860:  Aboriginal America - Jacob Abbot
bullet 1860:  Alabama's Letter to the State of North Carolina
bullet 1860:  Alexander Stevens' Reply to President-Elect Lincoln
bullet 1860:  The Bible Argument (on slavery) - Thornton Stringfellow
bullet 1860:  Census Data for the Year 1860
bullet 1860:  "Chicago Wide-Awake Republican Club to Abraham Lincoln - membership certificate
bullet 1860:  Constitutional Union Party Platform - Bell, Everett
bullet 1860:  The Crittendon Compromise
bullet 1860:  "The Day of Battle Has Arrived-Election Day 1860" - The Richmond Enquirer (Nov. 1860)
bullet 1860:  Democratic Party Platform          Republican Party Platform
bullet 1860:  Democratic Platform - John Breckinridge
bullet 1860:  Distribution of Farms by Acreage - 1860
bullet 1860:  Distribution of Slaveholders by Size of Holdings - 1860
bullet 1860:  "[Dividing the] National [Map]" - political cartoon
bullet 1860:  The Doom of Slavery in the Union- Its Safety Out of It, by John Townsend
bullet 1860:  "The Election in November" by James Russell Lowell - The Atlantic Monthly (Oct. 1860)
bullet 1860:  Essay on Liberty - John Stuart Mill
bullet 1860:   President James Buchanan's Fourth Annual Message to Congress
bullet 1860:  Jefferson Davis - portrait photo by Matthew Brady
bullet 1860:  "Let Us , therefore, reason together!" - speech by Alec Stephens (11/14)
bullet 1860:  Letter from Congressman John Reagan of Texas
bullet 1860:  Letter from Frederick Douglass on his views on Liberty
bullet 1860:  Letters to the Citizens of the Greenville, SC district - For the Southern Enterprise
bullet 1860:  "Lincoln and Liberty, Too" - Lincoln's campaign song (sound file) with lyrics
bullet 1860:  Lincoln's Cooper Union Address
bullet 1860:  Lincoln's New Haven speech, 3/6 (complete)
bullet 1860:  "Little Stephen A. Trying to Climb A Very High Chair" - political cartoon in Vanity Fair (7/14)
bullet 1860:  New Orleans Daily Picayune editorial of 11/4
bullet 1860:  Open Letter of Gov. Joe Brown to the People of Georgia
bullet 1860:  "Our Political Snake Charmer" - political cartoon in Vanity Fair (2/11)
bullet 1860:  Platform of the Alabama Democracy - Montgomery, AL (Jan.)
bullet 1860:  Population Distribution of the Border Slaveholding States - 1860
bullet 1860:  Population Distribution of the the Eleven Future Confederate States - 1860
bullet 1860:  President-Elect Lincoln's Letter to Alexander Stevens
bullet 1860:  "Prospects of Slavery Expansion" - Charleston Mercury (2/28)
bullet 1860:  "The Slave Deck of the Bark 'Wildfire." - illustration in the 6/2 issue of Harper's Weekly
bullet 1860:  Slave Statistics Information
bullet 1860:  South Carolina Secession Declaration Debate (12/22/1860)
bullet 1860:  South Carolina Secession Declaration Debate (12/25/1860)
bullet 1860:  "Southern testimony. Speech of Alex. H. Stephens, now vice president of the "Southern Confederacy,& before the Convention which assembled in Georgia in Dec. 1860 to act upon the question of secession " - broadside
bullet 1860:  Speech of B. F. Perry of South Carolina in the National Democratic Convention
bullet 1860:  "The Terrors of Submission" - Charleston Mercury (10/11)
bullet 1860:  "Though Lincoln is elected, there is no danger" - Staunton Spectator (11/13)
bullet 1860:  "What is the True Issue?" - Daily Picayune, New Orleans (11/4)
bullet 1860:  "Young America Rising at the Ballot-Box and Strangling the Serpents Disunion and Secession" - political cartoon Harper's Weekly (9/1)
bullet 1865?:  Pioneer Days in Kansas (1856-1865) - Richard Corldey
bullet 1884:  "The Last Moments of John Brown" - painting by Thomas Hovenden
bullet 1902:  "Horace Greeley and the Working Class Origins of the Republican Party" - John R. Commons
           (Univ. of WI)

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing