Primary Source Documents
bullet 19c Children and What They Read
bullet 19c Religion in America (National Humanities Center)
bullet 19c Schoolbooks
bullet The Abolitionist
bullet African American Shakers: In the Berkshires and Beyond
bullet African American World Timeline (PBS)
bullet Africans in America:  1791-1831-- "Brotherly Love" (PBS)
bullet Ain't I a Woman?:  Slavery and Freedom Literature (Dr. Kathleen Nichols, Pittsburgh State University)
bullet Alcohol, Temperance, and Prohibition (Brown University Library)
bullet America's First Look into the Camera:  Daguerreotype Portraits and Views (1839-1864)
bullet The American Renaissance and Transcendentalism (PBS)
bullet The Amistad Trial:  1839-1840
bullet Angelina Grimké- Quaker, Abolitionist, and Women's Rights Advocate
bullet Anti-Slavery Timeline (
bullet The Biography of America:  The Reform Impulse (1800-1848) - Annenberg/CPB
bullet Brook Farm Website
bullet The Burned-Over District of NY
bullet Charles Finney Papers at Oberlin College
bullet Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism:  1830-end
bullet Common School Movement - Colonial and Republican Schooling, Changes in the Antebellum Era, The Rise of the Common School
bullet "Divining America:  Religion & the National Culture" (19c)
bullet Edgar Allan Poe Museum
bullet The Educational System of the 19th Century During the Civil War by C. Stotler
bullet Emily Dickinson
bullet Evangelicalism, Revivalism, and the Second Great Awakening
bullet Evangelicalism as a Social Movement
bullet Freedom's Journal, the first African-American owned and operated newspaper published in the United States (Wisconsin Historical Society)
bullet Frederick Douglass
bullet Frederick Douglass National History Site
bullet Freedom's Journal - first African-American owned and operated newspaper (1827-29)
bullet George Ripley
bullet Godey's Lady's Book (1855-58)
bullet Hancock Shaker Village (MA)
bullet The Harriet Beecher Stowe Center:  House and Library
bullet Henry David Thoreau
bullet A Hudson River Portfolio (NY Public Library)
bullet The Hudson River School (Artcyclopedia) - large links of artists & their works
bullet Hudson River School of Painting (1)
bullet Hudson River School of Painting (2)
bullet Hudson River School of Painting (3) - PBS
bullet "The Humor of Edgar Allan Poe" - David Tomlinson (essay)
bullet Images of the Anti-Slavery Movement in Massachusetts (MA Historical Society)
bullet Julia Ward Howe
bullet The Liberator by William Lloyd Garrison
bullet Louisa May Alcott
bullet "Lyman Beecher and the Problem of Religious Pluralism in the Early American Republic" - essay by Matthew W. Backes (Columbia Univ.)
bullet Map-->"The Mormon Trek:  1830-1851"
bullet Mother Ann Lee
bullet Nathaniel Hawthorne
bullet Nativism in 19c America
bullet New Harmony:  An Experimental, Cooperative Community - Prof. Roland Marchand (UC Davis) - many docs.
bullet The Nineteenth Century in Print- Periodicals
bullet The North Star, A Journal of African-American Religious History (archives at Princeton Univ.)
bullet Not For Ourselves Alone - The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony (PBS)
bullet The Oneida Community (New York History Net)
bullet Penny Magazine (1832-1835)
bullet Pictorial Americana - Women's Rights, 1859-1913, Selected Images (LOC)
bullet Racial Stereotypes:  A Visual Studies Blog
bullet "Radical Movements" - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet Ralph Waldo Emerson
bullet Religion & the New Republic:  The Second Great Awakening
bullet "Religious Groups, Benevolent Organizations, and American Pluralism" -  essay by Edward Kilsdonk (Univ. of VA)
bullet "Revivalism and Benevolence" - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet "The role of Philosophy and Literature in building up the national identity of the early 19th century United States" - Keijo Virtanen (essay)
bullet Selected Hudson River School Paintings
bullet The Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
bullet Shaker and Non-Shaker Tunes
bullet Slavery in the United States (Spartacus)
bullet Sunday School Books- Shaping the Values of Youth in Nineteenth-Century America (LOC)
bullet Susan B. Anthony House
bullet "Transcendentalism" - lecture by Prof. Terry Matthews (Wake Forest Univ.)
bullet Transcendentalism
bullet The Transcendentalists
bullet The Transcendentalist Page
bullet Travels for Reform: The Early Work of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1852-1861
bullet Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture: A Multimedia Archive
bullet Upstate New York and the Women's Rights Movement
bullet Votes for Women:  Selections from the National American Women's Suffrage Association, 1848-1921 (LOC)
bullet Votes for Women's Suffrage:  1850-1920 (LOC)
bullet Walt Whitman
bullet Walt Whitman Archive
bullet The Web of American Transcendentalism
bullet Welcome to Chautauqua
bullet Western New York Suffragists:  Winning the Vote
bullet Women and the Law in Early 19c Indiana
bullet Women in America:  1820-1842
bullet Women's Rights National Historical Park (Seneca Falls, NY)
bullet Women's Suffrage in the United States (Spartacus - UK)

                                           Web Links
How to read a primary source document
                                   Why Study History Through Primary Sources
bullet 1804:  Ohio Black Codes
bullet 1807:  “The Meeting Continued All Night, Both by the White & Black People” - Georgia Camp Meeting
bullet 1819:  "Improving Female Education" - Emma Willard
bullet 1820:  Hile v. Webb - divorce case regarding equity (Rhode Island Supreme Court)
bullet 1820:  Moral Argument Against Calvinism - William Ellery Channing
bullet 1820s-30s?:  “Their Habits Of Order Are Carried to the Extreme” - A Lowell Mill Worker Visits the Shakers
bullet 1821:  The Manumission of Ann and Rufus Johnson (New Jersey)
bullet 1824:  Legal rights of the widow to the estate of her husband; Marriage and Divorce laws - James Fennimore Cooper
bullet 1824:  Literary Knowledge of American Women - James Fennimore Cooper
bullet 1824:  Manners of Young American Women; Their Interaction with Bachelors - James Fennimore Cooper
bullet 1824:  On the Necessity of Male Chaperons - James Fennimore Cooper
bullet 1824:  On the Proper Occupations of Women in America  James Fennimore Cooper
bullet 1825:  "Christian Motherhood" etching
bullet 1825:  Womens' Fashions: 1825-1840 - various pictures
bullet 1825-26:  Various Documents on Robert Owen's New Harmony community    (additional documents)
bullet 1826:  "The Common Schools of Massachusetts" -  James G. Carter's Essays on Popular Education
bullet 1827:  Visit to a Shaker Village - Margaret Hall
bullet 1827:  Visit to the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb; Visit to the Prison - Margaret Hall
bullet 1828:  Education for Females in America - Frances Trollope
bullet 1828:  Lyman Beecher - "Six Sermons on Intemperance"
bullet 1829:  Letter of Elizabeth Fry [a Quaker] to Sarah Smith on Prison Reform
bullet 1829:  "The Profession of a Woman" - Catherine Beecher
bullet 1830:  “All To Me Was New and Strange” - Mary Doolittle Leaves Her Family for a Shaker Community
bullet 1830:  Antebellum Reform: The Shift to Immediatism - broadside
bullet 1830:  "Niagara Falls" - painting by Thomas Cole
bullet 1830:  Rules for Husbands and Wives - Mathew Carey 
bullet 1830:  Henry Clay letter on slavery
bullet 1830s:  “My Heart Was So Full of Love That It Overflowed” - Charles Finney Experiences Conversion
bullet 1831:  Essay on American Government and Religion - Alexis de Tocqueville
bullet 1831:  The Liberator's inaugural edition (1/1)
bullet 1831:  Prophet John Smith Relays God's Message - speech
bullet 1831:  William Lloyd Garrison from The Liberator - "To the Public"
bullet 1832:  African Americans Convene For Their Second National Convention
bullet 1832:  Chapter VIII of Domestic Manners of the Americans - Mrs. Frances Trollope
bullet 1832:  "Defense of Slavery" - Thomas R. Dew
bullet 1832:  Garrison's Exposure of the American Colonization Society
bullet 1833:  American Anti-Slavery Society Constitution
bullet 1833:  An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans - Lydia Maria Child (selected chapters)
bullet 1833:  Constitution of the American Anti-Slavery Society (12/4)
bullet 1833:  "Declaration of the anti-slavery convention assembled in Philadelphia" (12/4) - broadside
bullet 1833:  Philadelphia Declaration, National Anti-Slavery Society
bullet 1833:  William Sprague Describes Revivals
bullet 1834:  Dr. Beecher's Address on Abolitionism & Colonization
bullet 1834:  "The Peaceable Kingdom" - painting by Edward Hicks
bullet 1834:  "What a Revival of Religion Is" - Charles Finney
bullet 1835:  "The crime of the abolitionists ... Speech of Gerrit Smith, in the meeting of the New-York anti-slavery society" - broadside
bullet 1835:  First Annual Report of the Female Moral Reform Society of the City of New York
bullet 1835:  "Gentle Advice to Teachers" - Jacob Abbot
bullet 1835:  Foreign Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States - Samuel F. B. Morse
bullet 1835:  John Jay Shipherd's Pastoral Letter
bullet 1835:  Postmaster's Report on Seizure of Abolition Mailings
bullet 1835:  "Slavery and the Boston riot" - letter was written, shortly after the pro-slavery riot in Boston by Angeline E. Grimké to William Lloyd Garrison
bullet 1835:  "What a Revival of a Religion Is" - Charles Finney
bullet 1835:  "What Colonization Means" - The Anti-Slavery Record
bullet 1836:  Narrative of the Late Riotous Proceedings Against the Liberty of the Press - The Ohio Anti-Slavery Society
bullet 1837:  "The American Scholar" - Ralph Waldo Emerson - speech given to the Phi Beta Kappa Society Harvard University
bullet 1837:  Anti-Catholic petition from 97 electors in Washington County, New York to the U.S. Congress
bullet 1837:  Catherine Beecher Condemns Abolitionism
bullet 1837:  "The Christian's Harp" - Samuel Wakefield - revival song
bullet 1837:  "Concord Hymn" by Ralph Waldo Emerson
bullet 1837:  First Annual Meeting of the American Moral Reform Society
bullet 1837:  Gag Rule Controversy, Petition Purporting to Come from Slaves - John Quincy Adams speech in the House (2/6)
bullet 1837:  Legal Disabilities of Women Letters - Sarah Grimké (9/6)
bullet 1837:  "The Murder of Lovejoy" - Wendell Phillips (12/8)
bullet 1837:  "Outrage!" - abolitionist handbill (2/27)
bullet 1837:  Pastoral Letter of the General Association of Massachusetts (6/28) concerning anti-slavery and women's rights
bullet 1837:  Reception of Abolition Petitions - John C. Calhoun
bullet 1837:  Sarah Grimké response to the above pastoral letter (July)
bullet 1837:  "Slavery as a positive good" - speech by Senator John C. Calhoun (2/6)
bullet 1838:  "Just Treatment of Licentious Men.  Addressed to Christian Mothers, Wives Sisters, and Daughters" - Friend of Virtue
bullet 1838:  "A Lecture on the Importance of Education" - broadside
bullet 1838:  "Abolitionists of Massachusetts" - circular (3 pages)
bullet 1838:  Address at Pennsylvania Hall - Angelina Grimké
bullet 1838:  Letter of Gerrit Smith to Hon. Henry Clay
bullet 1838:  Letters to Mothers (excerpts) - Mrs. L. H. Sigourney
bullet 1838:  "Moral Influence on the Husband" - chapter 36 in From the Young Wife by William A. Alcott
bullet 1838:  Speech to the Harvard Divinity School (7/15) - Ralph Waldo Emerson
bullet 1838:  Thoughts on Miss S. M. Grimké's 'Duties of Woman,'" Advocate of Moral Reform
bullet 1839:  E. W. Clay's Amalgamation cartoons (4)
bullet 1839:  Excerpt from "Essay Read at a monthly prayer meeting of an auxiliary Female Moral Reform Society," Advocate of Moral Reform (11/1)
bullet 1839:  Liberty Party Platform
bullet 1839:  On the Conditions of the Free People of Color in the United States, Anti-Slavery Examiner 13 New York, 1839
bullet 1839:  Reverend M'Ilvaine Denounces Intemperance
bullet 1840:  Diary excerpts from  Lucretia Mott's Diary of Her Visit to Great Britain to Attend the World's -Slavery Convention of 1840
bullet 1840:  On the Evaluation of the Laboring Classes - William Ellery Channing
bullet 1840:  "Hints to Young Ladies on an Important Subject," Advocate of Moral Reform (8/1)
bullet 1840:  “I Believe in the Divinity of Labor” - George Ripley Tries to Convince Ralph Waldo Emerson to Join Brook Farm, Boston
bullet 1840:  Letter from Lucretia Mott to Maria Weston Chapman, 29 July
bullet 1840:  "Social Destiny of Man" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 8, Issue 35,  November - December
bullet 1840:  "The True Heart of Woman" - song lyrics by Mrs. Wilson
bullet 1841:  "A Letter from Brook Farm" - Nathaniel Hawthorne
bullet 1841:  "A Second Declaration of Independence…" - J. W. Goodrich
bullet 1841:  The Amistad, 40 U.S. 518
bullet 1841:  Arguments of John Q. Adams Before the Supreme Court
bullet 1841:  "My Mother's Bible" - song lyrics by Henry Russell;  the poetry by George P. Morris, Esq.
bullet 1841:  "Self-Reliance" - Ralph Waldo Emerson
bullet 1841:  "Slavery" in The Works of William Ellery Channing
bullet 1841:  The Supreme Court Decision on the Amistad Case
bullet 1841:  A Treatise on Domestic Economy for the Use of Young Ladies at Home and at School - Catherine E. Beecher
bullet 1841:  "What is it, to 'Cease from Man?'" Editorial, Advocate of Moral Reform (10/1)
bullet 1842:  American Notes - Charles Dickens (Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind;  Meeting Laura Bridgeman)
bullet 1842:  Miller's Camp Meeting at Salem, MA - The Herald (10/22)
bullet 1842:  "The Peace Movement" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 10, Issue 44, February
bullet 1842:  Prigg v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 41 U.S. 539
bullet 1842:  Temperance Address - Abraham Lincoln (Springfield Washington Temperance Society
bullet 1842:  "Transcendentalism" - essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson
bullet 1842:  "The Transcendentalist" - essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson
bullet 1843:  "Anti-Slavery and the Second Advent" - article by Luther Boutelle in The Liberator (5/5)
bullet 1843:  Back cover with illustration for The American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1843
bullet 1843:  Dorothea Dix Speaks Out On Behalf of Insane Persons
bullet 1843:  "The End of the World" - James Kirke Paulding in Graham's Magazine  (March)
bullet 1843:  "Massachusetts to Virginia" - poem by John Greenlief Whittier
bullet 1844:  "Temperance pledge filled in by Neil James Sweeney, 28 of March" - broadside
bullet 1845:  "The Abolitionists" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 16, Issue 79, January 1845
bullet 1845:  Anti-Rent State Convention in Berne, NY (1/15)
bullet 1845:  John Humphrey Noyes and Bible Communism
bullet 1845:  "Mr. Emerson and Transcendentalism" - The American Whig Review / Volume 1, Issue 3, Mar 1845
bullet 1845:  Narrative and Life of Frederick Douglass excerpts
bullet 1845:  "That dark side of domestic life.." - letter from Harriet Beecher Stowe to her Husband, Calvin Stowe
bullet 1845:  The Unconstitutionality of Slavery - Lysander Spooner
bullet 1846:  "American Slavery and Britain's Rebuke of Man-Stealers: An Address Delivered in Bridgwater, England, on August 31, 1846 - Frederick Douglass - Bridgwater Times (9/3)
bullet 1846:  "Christian Non-Resistance" - Adin Balou
bullet 1846:  A letter from Gerrit Smith to the Liberty Party
bullet 1846:  "The political and military reformer. Devoted to the support of truly Republican principles -- of a well disciplined militia -- of an American system of education, and of sound literature and science. [Prospectus] 1/30 - broadside
bullet 1846:  "Political Corruption" - The American Whig Review / Volume 3, Issue 5, May 1846
bullet 1846:  "Slavery as it Now Exists in the United States:  An Address Delivered in Bristol, England on August 25, 1846" - Frederick Douglass - Bristol Mercury and Western Counties Advertiser (8/29)
bullet 1846:  Tenth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education - Horace Mann
bullet 1846:  Martha Washington Salem Union No. 6., Daughters of Temperance - a portion of the charter of an early women's temperance union
bullet 1847:  Average Monthly Salaries, Including Board, of Teachers in 1847 (towards bottom of page)
bullet 1847:  Letters on the Masonic Institution - John Quincy Adams 
bullet 1847:  "Report on Abolition" - National Convention of Colored People
bullet 1847:  "The Skin Aristocracy in America: An Address Delivered in Coventry, England, February 2, 1847." - Frederick Douglass - Coventry Herald and Observer (2/5)
bullet 1848:  Address of the Liberty Party to the Colored People of the Northern States
bullet 1848:  The Anti-Slavery Harp: A Collection of Songs for Anti-Slavery Meetings, Compiled by William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave (Boston: Bela Marsh, 1848)
bullet 1848:  Brown's Anti-Slavery Harp - a compendium of abolitionist song lyrics (48 songs)
bullet 1848:  The Declaration of Sentiments - Seneca Falls Convention
bullet 1848:  Elizabeth Cady Stanton Answers Newspaper Critics - National Reformer (9/14)
bullet 1848:  Horace Mann on Education and National Welfare - Twelfth Annual Report of Horace Mann as Secretary of Massachusetts State Board of Education
bullet 1848:  The Law of Progress - Lucretia Mott (5/9)
bullet 1848:  The Liberty Party of the United States, to the People of the United States
bullet 1848:  The Liberty Party platform of 1848
bullet 1848:  New York Married Women's Property Law
bullet 1848:  The North Star on Seneca Falls
bullet 1848:  "Poverty and Misery, Versus Reform and Progress" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 23, Issue 121, July 1848
bullet 1848:  "Rev. Sir:-- The American Colonization Society to which this is, auxiliary, has sent out the following companies of emigrants, nearly all emancipated slaves within the year ... Colonization Office", Boston (6/15) - broadside
bullet 1848:  The Resolutions at Rochester
bullet 1848:  The Solitude of Self - an address before the Committee of the Judiciary of the U. S. - Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1/18)
bullet 1848:  "We have decided to stay" speech delivered to the American Anti-Slavery Society in NY - Frederick Douglass (5/9)
bullet 1848:  "The Widow and Her Son" - from Water-Drops by Lydia Howard Sigourney
bullet 1849:  "Frederick Douglass on Colonization" North Star (1/26)
bullet 1849:  Liberty Party platform of 1849
bullet 1849:  On the Duty of Civil Disobedience - Henry David Thoreau
bullet 1850:  "Abolition vs. Christianity and the Union" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 27,  Issue 145, July
bullet 1850:  An Appeal to the Ladies of America" - Rev. A. L. Stone in The National Temperance Offering
bullet 1850:  "Argument on Woman's Rights," by H.H. Van Amringe, as reprinted in the Proceedings of the 1850 Convention
bullet 1850:  "The Drunkard's Home" - Mrs. Jane C. Campbell in The National Temperance Offering
bullet 1850:  Godey's Lady Book Online
bullet 1850:  "Grand Demonstration of Petticoatdom at Worcester--The 'Woman's Rights' Convention in Full blast--Important and Interesting Report" - Boston Daily Mail, Evening Edition, Friday (10/25)
bullet 1850:  The Lady at Home, or, Leaves from the Every-Day Book of an American Woman - T. S. Arthur
bullet 1850:  Letter from Caroline Wells (Healey) Dall to Paulina Wright Davis in The Liberator (11/8) on prostitution
bullet 1850:  Materials Related to the 1850 Women's Rights Convention (many different documents)
bullet 1850:  "Only a Year" - poem by Harriet Beecher Stowe
bullet 1850:  The Proceedings of the Woman's Rights Convention, held at Worcester (10/23-24)
bullet 1850:  "The Temperance Home" - Mrs. E. Jessup Eames in The National Temperance Offering
bullet 1850:  "The Vacant Chair" - poem by Richard Coe, Jr. in Godey's Lady's Book (Jan.)
bullet 1850:  The Wide, Wide World - Susan Bogert Warner
bullet 1850:  "Woman's Mission," by Ebenezer Elliot. The North Star (10/3)
bullet 1850:  "Women's Rights Convention" - as reported in The New York Herald, Saturday (10/26)
bullet 1850:  Woman's Rights Convention and People of Color," The North Star (12/5) - Parker Pillsbury
bullet 1851:  "Ain't I A Woman?" - Sojourner Truth
bullet 1851:  "Dancing as a Means of Physical Education" - Mrs. Alfred Webster
bullet 1851:  George W. Putnam, "A Poem," for the Woman's Rights Convention, Proceedings of the Woman's Rights Convention, Akron, Ohio
bullet 1851:  Letter from Elizabeth Blackwell to Baroness Anne Isabella Milbanke Byron concerning women' rights and the education of women physicians (3/4)
bullet 1851:  "Temperance" - The United States Democratic Review / Volume 29, Issue 158, August
bullet 1851:  The True Remedy for the Wrongs of Woman; with a History of an Enterprise Having That for  its Object - Catherine E. Beecher [written as a series of letters to her sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe]
bullet 1852:  Exposure of the American Colonization Society - William Lloyd Garrison
bullet 1852:  Frederick Douglass "Independence Day" Speech
bullet 1852:  Liberty Party platform of 1852
bullet 1852:  Married Women's Property Act - Acts of the Seventy-Sixth Legislature of the State of New Jersey (Somerville, 1852), 407
bullet 1852:  Report of the Massachusetts Committee on the Qualifications of Voters
bullet 1852:  Uncle Tom's Cabin - Harriet Beecher Stowe
bullet 1852-53:  American Book Reviews of Uncle Tom's Cabin
bullet 1853:  Colonization Editorial, New York Herald (4/12)
bullet 1853:  Proceedings of the Women's Rights Convention
bullet 1853:  A Sermon "Of the public function of woman, preached at the Music Hall" (3/27/1853) by Theodore Parker
bullet 1853:  William Lloyd Garrison at the Woman's Rights Convention (9/6)
bullet 1854:  "Economy" (Chapter 1) of Walden - Henry David Thoreau
bullet 1854:  "What is Home Without a Mother?" - song lyrics by Alice Hawthorne
bullet 1854:  "Slavery in Massachusetts" - speech by Henry David Thoreau 
bullet 1855:  Leaves of Grass - Walt Whitman (also has links to later editions)
bullet 1855:  Preface to Leaves of Grass - Walt Whitman
bullet 1856:  "Mother, Home and Heav'n" - song lyrics by Frank Drayton
bullet 1857:  "Niagara Falls" - painting by Frederic Edwin Church
bullet 1857:  "We Must Educate!" - page from The McGuffey Reader
bullet 1858:  Consistent democracy. The elective franchise for women.
bullet 1858:  A Woman's Thoughts About Women - Dinah Marie Mulock Craik
bullet 1859:  "Ought Women to Learn the Alphabet," Atlantic Monthly (Feb.) - Thomas Wentworth Higginson
bullet 1859:  Slave letter written by an unidentified slave
bullet 1875:  Narrative of Sojourner Truth; a bondswoman of olden time, emancipated by the New York Legislature in the early part of the present century; with a history of her labors and correspondence drawn from her "Book of life."
bullet 1876:  "Conversion to Christ" from Memoirs of Reverend Charles G. Finney
bullet 1902:  "Elizabeth Cady Stanton Dies at Her Home" - New York Times (10/27)

Ten Commandments of Good Historical Writing